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01^ 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




LIBRARY 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 

Bequest of 
WILLIAM BREWSTER 



r 



Ol\A S>L )<^A0. 





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ESTABLISHED 1875. 

ORNITHOLOGIST 

— AND— 

OdLOGIST. 

VOL. XVlll. .,-^-— — ^ No. 1. 




JANUARY, 



The Fir^t Sprtn^ Outing . . . . . 

A List of thf Birds of Randolph CuiiiHv, Ind., with 

somt* note^ on ihc Mammals cilf Iht- siuih' coiintv 
Douiesliciitjon of thi.- Caiutdii Uoohi? 
Nesliii]^ of the Cerulean VV'urhlcr 
A Few Dny* Among thf Blne-vviiigeti Wmbjc 
A Comparison of the Neaing FlabTtJ, of the Lon^* 

billed and Short-bnied Mar-^h Wren . 
Winter Notes from Stephen tow i^, New York 
Early Netiting of the Cnltfornm Thntjihtr 
UivlrtHution of IllinoU Birds 
Abnorni.'il Coloring^of ii Son^ Sparrow*!^ Egg 
Brief Note^t Correspondence and ClippTnj^s 
Nesting of the Carolfn,i Wren . 



CONTENTS. 

John S. Clark 



Ulv^ses ()» Cox 
[:imeis H* Pnrdy 
Philo W. Siuiih. 
I*,iuic S. Ret ft . 



J"-' 



C, W. Bowles . 
ISenjamin Hoas^ 
ILM, IL 

Dr. A. C. Morehison 

\L L. C. Wilde. ! 






It. OS PEn AlHt^UMT. SINGLE COPY. 10 CCNTS, 



PUHl.TSHF.P ItV 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY, 
HYDE PARK, MASS. 

Entcrdd at HytJc r.irk PiiJstnffliiwC as Sccont!*<:laiA 31 alter, 



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Birds' Skins and Eggs, 



li/ro li XS I y/.LE. TEXAS 

Will give spec ill 1 ftUeiiUon to the collcctinn. ff,r 
HCjeiltihc purpo^^cs, of nW Birds, BciiMN. Rep! tie. 
nninf in the intevfor und hwdcr of M(^viLo, atid 
^v^lI tumish caretiiJ djim in regard to s.mie. 
Correspondenre wsptftfulh *ioIicittfd. 



FRANK W. ARMSlRONf,. 



H. H, S C. S. BRIMLEY, 



N \LKinH. St 

COLLECTORS, 



Fjm-cln^^ Bird ;.nd Mnimnal Skin., and Ktrt*^ 
AUo Rcpnles, li'itiachian,'^. Emfjrvos. ck.. in Tit- 
i-nhoL FntlH-it;HTu*ric;i^L'N. W rite Un prke-Iist. 

To Dealers wc eiiH iitteniion |r» the fati that ■ 
rhev come on |»apers und can l«e tvivilv handled. 
Cork, Conefi, Oj^^es, Nft*. and loots. 

I RANK TILAKK WKBST KR iX>. 

THE HflTlONAL EXCHANGE !:;^X i^r- , 
B' 



I I-v^ry m)^ aiid tJJRL w1k» loves ig read apkiiilid StDTt«, 
A^ittf; *^l*'^ teV!i^^' ^'^"^^ ^'^"'^ ^uWrtbc lor ITJii 
M^^V'vl^ VOL'Xri FULKS. ., Ijeauuful liJustrated 
>Ii)ruhiy .\Ja^.i/,ne, ptahh^hed ji; 187. hi Moncs iire (1^ 
I ?,^V^ ■** '"'*" •'*' ^"ntyinrd from rNc foM?niof*it ^ntcr% of 
hutmli; r.itcratiir^, and tt^tty ^*ne is AIM wiih good ihiniis 

iCyi THIS OUT ^;:\r:;rfl SiLVER DIME 

I jnd ymif tinro. r,nH a,Un=*,, w. will .chI v-u' ^e m^Lf,!^ 
MANCHKSlKkt N\M. 

Lily of the Desert. 

A grcai Xuv^itiy ; grcnvt m sand. Ruths |i,eroe»ch, 

VVe nmkea ^peeiahv of KutiiT American PaJJTi 
iind Kver^reeti Trees aiid Fhiwer Heeds Bnlb>^, 
I' e r n s . Ci et i ii lid ot her p hi n I ?.. 

(tRCriT SEED AM) PLANT CO.. 
Sax Dikgo, Cat., 
Send 2S i^U- for -t:ed of Ljahvrnv splcndeiif^, 
'*THE PRIDE OF CALIFORNIA/* 



>INL-S iuKkKSH1^^^,^T^; r.uour .v Mail. 
Addr^j^wifh *tamp, Mu^ 704. Hlkhari. Indinna 



GEORGE B. BADGER, 
Oolleotor. 



AGENTS WANTED 
To in trad nee the iiKsr si LLJSf* \ii.Tlrt 1: 
IN TIN.; \voKiJ>. Li hern I eoTniiii'«*<ion. Ei^du- 
^»ve territorv, Addre«^s, with stamn, 

H A. Mt^MAW. Ml).. 

Ei.KirsKT, In II, 

Home Course of Reading 

PHYSICAL CULTURE. 

Setid st^tmp for purtieulais, Addlc^-. 
^^^^^ BOX 704, ELKHART, IND. 



CTAMPS. COINS. CURIOS/i 



CAREFrLLV PRIi;PARKJ> 

BIRDS' AXD MAMMALS' SKINS, | 

With lull -eientitk- da tit. I 

I 

Aiso BvautifuHy Ilnishcd Fur Rugs 

Cf ) r re > p i > n de t i ee ^ft I te 1 1 ed . 

SANTA CRUZ, CAL. 



ill ihc 
\^ A fnny.tjiehr ra^tsLoi", AG Ef^jS WANTED. 



A ,Skiu nf the NcwtouiKlUdd t aribm. with eMt;i laruc, fine 
;irillt:t£. Vhe Mkin i» in jiickic, rtady lo nHnitir, 

A Sk*n of [Mm Hear, incttiitfii, will] fmiii tteili and elaw*^ 
Jjerleci . tifj bc!M*:i.. Will itumm ^1] fTjifii 

WANTED. 

A fiinf larg*; Miin-^c Hi-Ati; horn's mus'l fx; cjitra larg*;^ 

iwmi v\\i%L, MA'i^. 



ftoms 

Net- 
ting, 



Oyitt; 




JL^LAKD ^ OWNERS t-^^f-.ei^^.t^^^fi 



Aa:ents^ 



ike $200.00 ^^ ^^ ri £t Irfc 

Tb« best ItJCAl and truTfillTin nufnta wnnieil every- 
where. Write M once for el rcul lira A* 1*1 ffanjlceier- 
rlUTTi ftdttre!»B A, U. Hulb*r*t, J'atenU'p. esirt* nf 

Fmct^try Cftt*tO(iiiewlthtJ00oajT»Te(l denUns MJid 
pr1c««, e«dt free tq atiy wtici wmt ^moy iron aol 
iirifQwork ar ellj, tieiaetemiid ttrm fenciu , nun- 



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ORNITHOLOGIST 

— AND — 

OOLOGIST. 



$1.00 per 
Annum. 



PUBLISHED BY THE FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY. 

ESTABLISHED MARCH, 1875. 



Vol. XVIII. HYDE PARK, MASS., JANUARY, 1893. 



Single Copy 
10 cenis. 

No. I. 



The First Spring Outing. 



The winter and spring of 1S92 will 
long be remembered for the visitation of 
the Russian epidemic, La Grippe. Un- 
sparing in its infliction, it numbered its 
victims in every household and in every 
avocation. Even the ornithologist was 
made to realize how it felt, and the walls 
of my house echoed and re-echoed to the 
form of expressing the presence and effect 
of the detested plague in all its variations. 

When one has passed through these ex- 
periences week after week and week after 
week, the things that charmed before lose 
much of their attraction ; even life ' itself 
bears a different aspect. What though 
the almanac indicated the near approach 
of spring, with its fascinations to the col- 
lector, I guessed that I shouldn't do much 
collecting this year and then suspended 
thinking long enough to sneeze a few 
times. 

But one morning the sun came out 
bright and warm, the winds were hushed 
and I didn't hear anybody sneezing. 
How different one feels at such a time ; 
the world looked more attractive, the | 
fields seemed inviting and a thought of 
the woods reviving. I gently suggested 
the possibilities of a trip to that old hollow j 
tree, where the Barred Owl had been ac- 1 
customed annually to prepare a set of eggs 
for me, to my boy, and his eyes danced 
and sparkled with animation. But then I 
he hadn't been through the Grippe, and ! 
of course was all ready to start, with one 



foot up. " O, let me climb to the nest ! " 
Of course I don't think I shall ever climb 
another tree if it be over two feet up to 
the branches. 

It was a pleasant morning for a pleasant 
trip ; it seemed to put new life into one 
debilitated by the epidemic. The drum- 
ming of the Grouse, and the startling 
whirr when we flushed one, stirred the 
blood, and we stopped to listen to the 
sweet song of a Purple Finch as, perched 
in a tree top, he repeated his delightful 
lay. Little families of Chickadees, cheer- 
ing each other with pleasant notes, were 
intent on the important business of secur- 
ing a breakfast, while one member of the 
family in different garb from the others 
showed that he had not been adopted long 
enough to learn the family language when 
he tried to join them in singing, his notes 
sounding more like the tinkling of a tiny 
bell. What a melodious whistle sudden- 
ly burst on the ear, loud and clear and 
startling in the quiet of the forest, and 
while the boy looked at me with inquiring 
wonderment expressed on his face, a flock 
of Fox-colored Sparrows began springing 
up from the ground and darting away one 
after another. How they can sing and 
what splendid voices they have. Wouldn't 
it be delightful, when they get home, to 
be there with them and listen to their 
chorus? I wonder where the enchanted 
spot may be. 

A turn of the path brought in view the 
place we sought and a surprise awaited us 
— the spoiler had been there with the 



Copyright, 1892, by Frank Blake Webster Company. 



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ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. iS-No. I 



woodman's axe. Instead of the tall trees 
that covered the spot a year ago, heaps of 
cord- wood were scattered all over the 
brown hillside, with very few of the old 
trees left; but we soon discovered that 
among those few was the dilapidated old 
tree whose holloxy trunk had contained 
the nest of Syrnium. But little encourage- 
ment, however, could we take to our- 
selves, for within a few feet from the 
trunk was a square corded pile of split 
wood. With scarcely interest enough to 
go to the spot, I lifted my staff' and gave a 
gentle blow upon the base and was prompt- 
ly startled by seeing the big brown head 
emerge and with great flapping of wings 
speed away to a neighboring tree, whence 
she glared at us with her beady black eyes 
and called out w/io-zv/io-w/io-oo-ou. By 
this time the boy was sitting astride the 
one remaining branch of the tree, which 
stood like an arm reaching out to grasp a 
support for the decaying foundation. 
"Three eggs this year," he exclaimed as 
he gazed down into the depths, "and 
they are away down deep, the whole 
length of my arm." Last year it was so 
that the bird could sit on the eggs and 
just peep over the top at an intruder. It 
was a beautiful set, almost globular in form, 
and being quite fresh they were clean and 
white. We returned over the hill way to 
visit the Red-tailed Hawks* nest as we 
did last year when we secured the set of 
three beautiful spotted eggs ; but while we 
found the nest unchanged, it appeared to 
be without a tenant this year. Night 
nearly overtook us before we reached 
home, and the first spring tramps will tire 
one ; but the pure air is invigorating and 
one does not seem to require such full 
measure of success on the first trip as later 
to be fully satisfied, for we unanimously 
pronunced it a successful and enjoyable 
outing. 

Jo /in A\ Clark. 

Old Say brook. Conn. 



A List of the Birds of Randolph 
County, Ind., with some notes on 
the Mammals of the same county. 



For some years previous to August, 
1 89 1, I made careful notes on the birds 
and mammals found in the above county, 
and believe the following to be a pretty 
accurate list of the winter birds. A few 
listed are truly migrants, but the dates at 
which they were seen would place them on 
the winter list. The mammal list is not 
complete. No Bats are given. I have seen 
some there, but do not know the species. 
The list of Mice and Shrews I believe to 
be only partially complete. 

WINTER BIRDS. 

A. o. r. 

194. Great Blue Heron. Not common 
in winter, but one was seen late 
in December. 

289. Bob White (Quail). Very common 
and much sought by hunters. The 
county is thickly settled, but nearly 
every farm has a flock or two. 

310. Wild Turkey. Now extinct but 
formerly quite common. 

316. Mourning Dove. A few remain 
around feeding places the entire 
winter. 

325. Turkey Buzzard. Occasionally seen 
during warm winters. 

333. Cooper's Hawk. Has been taken 
in the winter. 

337. Red-tailed Buzzard. Qiiite com- 
mon at all times. 

339. Red-shouldered Hawk (Chicken 
Hawk). Common for a hawk. 

352. Bald Eagle. One is occasionally 
seen. 

368. Barred Owl. Very common. 

373. Screech Owl. Common. More of 
the gray color than the brown. 

375. Great Horned Owl. Abundant for 

this species. 

376. Snowy Owl. Two were taken in 

the county in December, 1891, the 
only ones I have ever known. 



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January, 1893.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



393. Hairy Woodpecker. Can be seen 

any day in the year. 

394. Downy Woodpecker. Common, 

often found with Z>. vlUosus. 
406. Red-headed Woodpecker. Some 

years it remains all winter but 

others it is not seen during the 

cold months. 
409. Red-bellied Woodpecker. Occa- 
sionally seen, but it is not common. 
412. Flicker. Common during warm 

winters, rare when very cold. 
474. Horned Lark (Shore Lark). It is 

not uncommon to find a flock 

around a feeding place. 
477. Blue Jay. Can be seen almost any 

time. 
488. Crow. A few remain all the year 

when the winters are mild. 
559. Tree Sparrow. Very abundant, 

often found with Junco hyemalis. 
567. Snow Bird. Common. 
581. Song Sparrow. I have seen a few 

in midwinter. 
593. Cardinal. Common for this species. 

English Sparrow. Everywhere. 

727. White-bellied Nuthatch. Common. 
731. Tufted Titmouse. Very abundant. 
735. Black-capped Chickadee. I took 

one Feb. 12, 1891. 
761. Robin. Several have been seen in 

January. 

MAMMALS. 

Di del phis vlrginiana (Common Opos- 
sum). Formerly common, but now 
very rare. A few are killed each year. 

Lcpus sylvaticus (Gray Rabbit). Very 
abundant. 

Krethlzon dorsatus (Canada Porcupine). 
Quite common twenty years ago, but 
now not found. 

Piber zibcthicus (Muskrat). Common 
around swamps [and ditches. Trapped 
for fur. 

Arvicola pine tor urn (Pine Mouse). One 
specimen was taken January, 1891, by 



L. J. Driver, of Farmland, Ind. We 
put out many traps in the same region, 
but could get no more. 

Ari'icola pennsylvanicus (Meadow 
Mouse). Common everywhere. 

Calomys americanus (Dormouse) . Com- 
mon in the woods and along fences. 

Castor Fiber (Beaver). Not found at 
present, but a few old beaver dams can 
be located. 

Arctomys monax (Ground Hog). Occa- 
sionally found, formerly quite common. 

Tamias striatus (Chipmunk). Very 
common. 

Sciurns htidsonicus (Red Squirrel). 
Very rare. 

Sciurtis cariolincusis (Gray Squirrel). 
Common. 

Sciurtis niger ludoviciarius (Fox Squir- 
rel). Quite common. 

Sciuropterus volaus (Flying Squirrel). 
Common. In November a few years 
ago I found fifteen in one old stump. 

Blarina brevicauda (Mole Shrew). I 
took one specimen in 1891. Did not 
see or hear of any others. 

Blarina cxilipcs, I have one specimen, 
which I caught running on the snow in 
a road at night. 

Seal ops aquatic us (Common Mole). 
Common but not abundant. 

Procyon lotor (Raccoon). Common. 
Trapped for its fur. 

Mephitis mephitica (Common Skunk). 
Occasionally found. Formerly abund- 
ant. 

Putorius vison (Mink). Common in 
s6me localities. 

Putorius longicauda (Weasel). Form- 
erly abundant, now rather rare. 

Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox). A few are 
taken each year. Ulysses O* Cox. 
State Normal School, Mankato, Minn. 

George O. Welch, the Salem, Mass., 
taxidermist, reports that the season has 
been an unusually busy one with him. 



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ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. iS-Xo. 



Domestication of the Canada Goose. 



It is thought by a great many and some- 
times appears in print that the Wild Goose 
will not breed in confinement, or, in other 
words, in a domesticated state ; but as an 
experiment of this kind has come under 
my immediate observation, I will relate it 
in detail for the benefit of the readers of 
the Ornithologist and Oologist. It 
appears that some one found them breed- 
ing along the banks of a river in Minne- 
sota, and while the old goose with her 
young was feeding out on the land, he ran 
up between them and the river bank, and 
of course the young became an easy prey, 
as they were too young to fly. 

A pair of these young geese were sent to 
Chauncey Baker, of this place, who, after 
keeping them awhile, sold them to Luther 
Briggs, of this vicinity. Not long after- 
wards the female died, leaving the gander 
alone ; and after he became fully matured 
Mr. Briggs procured a tame goose to try 
the experiment of crossing them, which 
proved a success, for several broods of hy- 
brids were raised which had all the charac- 
teristics of the wild variety and resembled 
them so much in color that no one but an 
expert could tell them from pure bred 
Wild Geese ; but of course they were 
sterile and would not breed. On one oc- 
casion, during the fall migration, some of 
these half breeds went South, and were 
not seen again till the following summer 
during oat harvest, when they returned 
and brought with them some pure wild 
ones. The half breeds came to the barn- 
yard, but the wild ones kept to the fields. 
Mr. Briggs tried to capture them, but 
failed and they soon left, while the half 
breeds remained at their old home. After 
this he cut oft' one wing, at the first joint, 
of all the young ones he raised, for they 
were very restless during the migrating 
season. In the spring of iS86, Mr. M. 
L. Rice, of Utica, Michigan, procured a 



pure-bred young wild gosling that was 
caught somewhere in Dakota. It proved 
to be a female, and he let Mr. Briggs take 
it to cross with his old wild gander on 
shares, providing they would breed, Mr. 
Rice reserving the right to buy Mr. Briggs' 
should he ever wish to sell them. Of 
course Mr. Briggs got rid of all his other 
Geese and kept only the pair of pure wild 
ones, and in the spring of 1889, when the 
Goose was three years old, she built her 
first nest in a piece of woods and laid seven 
eggs, and while she was sitting, a Fox or 
some other wild animal destroyed all of 
the eggs and nearly killed the Goose, bit- 
ing her badly about the neck ; and in the 
spring of 1890 Mr. Briggs confined them 
during the breeding season in a large gar- 
den near the house where there was a creek 
running through its centre. Near this 
creek she built her nest and laid i\ve eggs 
and in due time she hatched every egg. 
When the goslings were about half grown 
one of them died, and the other four came 
to maturity ; and in the spring of 189 1 the 
old Geese were again confined in this same 
garden and near the creek. The female 
again built her nest, and when she had 
laid three eggs Mr. Briggs removed them 
from the nest for safe keeping and added 
a little more straw to the nest, which 
broke her up. She never went near it 
again. They afterwards found one egg in 
the creek, which was badly water-soaked 
and stained. I offered him one dollar for 
one of these fresh eggs, but he would not 
sell it. He kept the eggs some time and 
then set them under a hen. The water- 
soaked egg got broken under the hen and 
the other three were addled. I procured 
one of these addled eggs as a specimen for 
my cabinet, Robert Alexander got one, 
and the other was given to a friend of the 
Briggs family. 

Again, in the spring of 1892, the female 
built her nest and laid seven eggs. Mr. 
Albert Durfee procured one of these eggs 



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January, 1S93.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



while fresh for his cabinet and the other 
six hatched ; but about the time the Goose 
was sitting Mr. Briggs died, and in set- 
tling the estate and when these goslings 
were about half grown, they were all 
shipped together, twelve in number, to 
M. L. Rice, of Utica, Michigan, who, by 
agreement with Mr. Briggs, held a first 
claim on them. The young goslings never 
required any feeding but picked their own 
living with the old Geese. We hope to 
hear more about Mr. Rice's success with 
them in the future ; but this article in- 
cludes all of their history up to the present 
date. James B. Purdy* 

Plymouth, Wayne Co., Michigan. 



Nesting of the Cerulean Warbler. 



How well do I remember finding my 
first Cerulean Warblers* nest. 

It came about in this manner : One 
pleasant day in May, 1890, while out col- 
lecting skins at Greenwood, a suburb of 
St. Louis, on the Missouri Pacific Railroad, 
and about one half mile from my home, 
and while prying around in a small but 
beautiful piece of forest through which 
winds a small creek which goes by the 
name of the river Des Perces, pronounced 
De Pere, I spied a small bird flitting 
about in a tall but slender sycamore. On 
first appearance I took the tiny bird to be 
a Vireo of some species, and sat down to 
watch its movements for awhile before 
shooting. Finally it disappeared, and I 
had just begun to be vexed at such stupid- 
ity in allowing the bird to escape, when 
it made its appearance again, and with, I 
thought, something in its mouth ; but at 
such a great height I was not sure, so I 
decided to wait awhile, and was rewarded 
with unmistakable signs of nest building. 
As I could see nothing of the nest, I con- 
cluded that the nest must be just begun, 
and so I left, intending to visit the tree 
again in about a week ; but it was ten 



days before I again visited the locality, 
and with a good glass I scanned each and 
every branch but no hanging nest ; but on 
a horizontal limb about sixty-five feet up 
and about twelve feet from the trunk, and 
where the limb forked out, I thought I 
noticed an undue bulging of the limb and 
decided to investigate ; so after consider- 
able hard work in the way of shinning I 
reached the suspicious limb, and way out 
on the end I spied a tiny nest containing 
two eggs, but no bird in sight, nor did it 
show up. Not being prepared to secure 
the nest, and wishing a full set, I left. 

Four days later I returned with a long 
clothes-line, a chalk line, large jack-knife 
and some cotton, also a younger brother 
to help. After another hard shin, I reached 
the branch and begun operations by first 
wrapping and tying one end of the clothes- 
line around the limb containing the nest 
and about twenty inches from the trunk ; 
I next passed the line over a limb just 
above the one holding the nest, bringing 
the line down and securing to the lower 
limb ; my next move was to fasten a line 
to the fork containing the nest; much 
easier said than done, but I finally landed 
a chalk line with a weight attached in the 
right place, and lowering the same to the 
ground my brother attached a short line, 
which I was about to draw up in position 
when I thought to myself. How will I tie 
it away out there? But, no sooner said 
than done, I had my brother tie a good 
stout stick about a foot long to the end, 
and climbing higher up I hauled the rope 
up and secured it to the limb above ; thus 
I had the limb so it could not fall or turn 
over after it was cut. I almost forgot to 
say that all this rumpus proved too much 
for the bird, who up to the time I threw 
the chalk line over the limb a couple of 
inches from her had remained on the nest. 
She now left the nest, hopping all round 
it and continually pecking at the chalk 
line and scolding like a Wren or Vireo. 



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ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. 18-N0. I 



I then saw what a rare find I had made, 
and immediately let a string down for my 
little gun and shot Mrs. Warbler from my 
perch in the tree. Along about this time 
Came Mr. Warbler, attracted by the noise 
made by his spouse, and I took him in 
also. Now to my story. After securing 
ropes my next step was to place a roll of 
cotton in the nest, which I did by putting 
it on a long light pole and crawling out 
as far on the limb as I dared. I next be- 
gun cutting the green limb, which was 
nearly three inches thick. After chopping 
away for a half hour I succeeded in sever- 
ing the limb, and after much care in 
handling the lines I finally secured the 
nest and five fresh eggs. After securing 
this nest it was no trouble for me to find 
their nests right along, and during tlie rest 
of the season and the one following I found 
no less than forty nests and secured about 
twenty- five sets of eggs. They were all 
located in sycamores, with the exception 
of two, which were in oaks, they all being 
placed way out on a limb in the same 
manner as the Wood Pcwee, and from 40 
to 75 feet up. The nest very closely re- 
sembles a typical nest of Traill's Flycatcher, 
only smaller, being made of precisely the 
same material both inside and out. A 
typical nest measures, inside diameter 1.6 
in. ; inside depth i.i in. ; outside diameter 
2.6 in.; outside depth 1.5 in. Out of a 
series of twenty-five nests five contained 
fiv« eggs, sixteen four eggs and the balance 
three eggs. The eggs cannot with cer- 
tainty be distinguished from those of the 
Yellow Warbler. 

Philo ir. Smith, Jr. 
St. Louis, Mo. 

[The two sets of eggs]of Cerulean War- 
bler in my cabinet (with parent birds) are 
entirely diflferent from those of the Yellow 
Warbler. The nests also are very differ- 
ent from those described by Mr. Smith. — 
J.P.N.] 



A Few Days Among the Blue- 
winged Warblers. 



My experience of past years with this 
species {Helminthophila ptnus) , has been 
that on the last of May or the first of June, 
when I found a nest, the eggs were oftener 
heavily incubated than fresh, so the past 
season I thought I would start a week 
earlier. 

I left the city on May 21st, my object 
being to locate the birds on their breeding 
sites and see if they had commenced nest 
building. I spent the afternoon of the 
2 1 St, all day of the 2 2d and 23d tramping 
over the country wherever I knew of a 
suitable site, and at the end of the third 
day I had an attack of the blues of the very 
worst kind. 

The weather for the three days was raw 
and cloudy and I located only one pair of 
birds. I felt very badly over my poor luck 
and told my farmer friend who goes with 
me on all my egg tramps and knows as 
much about them as I do, but who is no 
collector, that I thought the birds had 
deserted their old breeding grounds, and 
that I did not think I would bother with 
them any more that season as I felt sure they 
were not there. He had more courage 
than I had, however, and said that he 
was not going to give up without another 
fight when I left him at the depot on Mon- 
day evening, where he had taken me to 
meet my train for the city. He told me 
that the first bright, sunny day he would 
look after them again and that I would 
hear good news from him before the week 
was out. 

I did not have much hope of receiving 
the good news he promised, but imagine 
my surprise when on Friday of that week 
I received a letter telling me to come up 
on Saturday as he had found two nests. 

On the evening of the 28th I took the 
train for my friend's place, he meeting me 
at the station when the train arrived. 



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AND OOLOGIST. 



After a drive of five miles and a good 
night's rest, on the 29th I was in good 
trim for work, and after breakfast we 
started out. The first thing to be done 
was to examine the two nests my friend 
had found, which were both in the same 
thicket about two hundred yards apart. 
The first nest contained four eggs of the 
Warbler and one of the Cowbird. When 
it was found it contained two eggs of the 
Warbler and the Cowbird. I did not dis- 
turb this nest as I was going to stay until 
the next day. The second nest was about 
half finished, but my friend declared thai 
there had been nothing added to it since 
he found it, but on June 9th he took a set 
of five fresh eggs from it. 

Our next find was a nest containing six 
fresh eggs in a small thicket on edge of 
a wood where I never found a pair before 
and have been hunting over the same 
ground for the past ten years. This was 
a grand surprise as I had never found a 
nest containing more than five eggs, but it 
seemed as if this was my lucky day and 
made up of surprises, for after packing the 
six little beauties safely in my box we 
started again and after a tramp of a half 
mile we entered a heavy wood ; after tramp- 
ing through it for some distance we came 
to a small stream of water and a clear spot 
containing about an eighth of an acre, with 
a few raspberry vines scattered about. 

As we entered the clear spot what was 
our surprise to hear the notes of the Blue- 
wing above our heads. It took us but a 
moment to find the nest which contained 
three fresh eggs. I left them and my 
friend secured the nest and five eggs for 
me on June 2d. After leaving this nest 
and tramping another half mile or more 
we came to an old breeding site where for 
the past three years we have found a nest 
of this species. The site is a narrow strip 
of ground between the last furrow of a 
ploughed field and an old worn fence di- 
viding the field from a large wood, covered 



with tall grass, blackberry and raspberry 
vines. The Sunday before we had been over 
this site and I thought it was impossible 
for a nest to be there and we not find it, 
but such must have been the case, for upon 
coming near it I sent my friend to examine 
a good site for a pair to take up in, telling 
him 1 would examine the old one but with 
no hope of success. I went the length of 
it, looking carefully into every place large 
enough to contain a nest and had nearly 
reached the corner of the fence and almost 
the last vine when out hopped the little 
Blue-wing. I stepped up to the vine, 
looked into the nest, counted the eggs, rub- 
bed my eyes, looked and counted again, 
rubbed my eyes, counted the third time 
and yelled to my friend the number, seven. 
After packing them, we threw ourselves 
on the ground in the shade of a large oak 
and talked the matter over, and we both 
came to the same conclusion that the nest 
must have been there when we looked for 
it a week before. 

After taking a half hour's rest and re- 
freshing ourselves with a drink of cold 
spring water, we started for another site, 
where we found a pair of birds. The 
season before this was a narrow strip of 
clear ground on the edg» of a wood about 
an eighth of a mile in length, overgrown 
with bushes and vines of many different 
kinds. We started in at the west end and 
after going about half way we knew the 
birds were there by hearing their song; 
we hunted the whole length of the wood 
and came to the conclusion that they had 
either hidden their nest so well that we 
overlooked it or else had not commenced 
it yet, when reaching the end of the wood 
where a fence divided it from a clover field 
there was a small cluster of raspberry vines ; 
stepping over to them and looking on the 
ground I saw the nest with little or no 
protection ; it contained two eggs. On 
June 3d my friend secured the nest with 
five eggs. 



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On the afternoon of May 30th I visited 
the first nest spoken of. It contained five 
eggs of the Warbler that were cold, which 
led me to believe the female would have 
laid at least one more ; but as the nest was 
placed in a bunch of grass and the cows 
had been tramping very close to it, I was 
afraid to leave it another day, and thinking 
a bird in hand was worth two in the bush 
I packed the eggs in my box and started 
for my home feeling well paid for my trip, 
bringing home one set of seven, one of six, 
one of ^ve, and receiving the other three 
sets of f\\e in good condition when the sets 
were completed. 

On Sunday, June 1 2th, myself and friend 
went over the same ground and found the 
second nest of the pair from which I took 
the seven eggs. It was placed in a bunch 
of tall grass about 200 feet from the site of 
the first one and contained four eggs ; in- 
cubation commenced. About 300 yards 
from this nest we found one containing four 
eggs that we overlooked on the 29th of 
May ; incubation was far advanced. On 
our homeward trip we found the second 
nest of the last pair we found on the 2Sth 
about 50 feet from the old site, containing 
four eggs ; incubation commenced. I do 
not believe in robbing a pair of birds of 
their eggs the second time ; my object in 
going after them this time was to find out 
what their second clutch would consist of. 
I did it once before and never found but 
four eggs, and by this I am led to believe 
that they rarely, if ever, lay more. I hope 
to spend several more pleasant days look- 
ing after them the coming season. 

I would be pleased to have other col- 
lectors give their experience with this spe- 
cies. To my mind it is one of the most 
interesting of the Warbler family. 

Isaac S, Reiff, 
Philadelphia. ^ 



R. H. Carr reported a Scarlet Tanageri 
taken at Brockton, Mass., on November 
II, 1S92. 



A Comparison of the Nesting Hab- 
its of the Long-billed and Short- 
billed Marsh Wren. 



The Short-billed Marsh Wren ( Cistot- 
horus stellaris) seems to be confined to 
certain sections for the nesting season. I 
know of but two places where they are to 
be found in numbers, and as these places 
are somewhat under thirty miles from my 
present residence, and, so far as I know, 
but one other oologist besides my brother 
and myself knows about them, the birds are 
disturbed very little and consequently con- 
gregate in considerable numbers every 
year. The Long-bills ( C. palustris) are 
common almost anywhere. 

The Short-billed usually has the first 
nest completed and eggs laid by the last of 
May and the Long-bills about a week 
later ; as at that time of the year the grass 
is not very long, the nest is often built so 
that it almost touches the hummock from 
which the supporting grass grows, but I 
have never seen them actually on or in the 
hummock. As a rule it is built some dis- 
tance from the ground, and one, containing 
seven eggs, was built in the top of the 
bunch of the grass — the tops of the live 
grass being woven in and forming part of 
the nest. 

I have noticed that while both species 
build in wet meadows (in this case fresh- 
water meadows) the Long-bills invariably 
build in the tall rank grass and near some 
river or brook, while the Short-bills are 
equally particular in choosing a shorter 
and much less rank kind of grass. When 
the first set is laid, the grass all over the 
meadows is rather short and not very 
rank, so that the nests may be anywhere 
and it is nothing but pure luck when one 
is found ; but later in the season, when 
most of the grass is long and rank, the 
Long-bills stay wherever they happen to 
be, while those of the other species come 
from all parts of the meadows, and con- 



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AND OOLOGIST. 



gregate in the two places before men- 
tioned, where the grass does not grow 
much over two feet in height and ia not at 
all thick or rank. At this time of the 
year, with a little patience, almost any 
number of nests can be found. 

In choosing a nesting site they {stel- 
Jaris) do not seem to be at all influenced 
by the position of the streams, as some of 
their nests were within ten feet of the 
flowing water, while others were as much 
as fifty yards off in the marsh, with abso- 
lutely nothing to indicate their where- 
abouts. 

The construction of the nests seems to 
be as different in the two species as their 
location, but neither ever use any mud. 
The Long-bills* nest is a very bulky piece 
of work and is composed externally of the 
soft pieces of the dead, coarse grass that 
it finds on the hummocks where it builds, 
while the other uses the fine grass before 
described, taking the fresh green grass for 
the outside and the softer dead grass for 
the inside next to the lining, and makes a 
much smaller nest. This makes the nest 
of the latter much more difflcult to find, 
as it is of the same color of the surround- 
ing grass. 

Both birds build from two to six decoy 
nests to the best of my belief, for each pair 
seems to have a smaller area of the marsh 
to themselves for building purposes, and 
the number of nests in each ."bunch" 
varies between these two figures. I think 
that one reason for these decoy nests being 
built may be for convenience in the event 
of the first nest being robbed or destroyed, 
as I have taken a set of eggs from a nest 
and a week or so later, on going to a decoy 
nest close by the position of the old one, 
found three fresh eggs in it. 

The lining materials are the same for 
both birds, but vary considerably, as it is 
in some nests of very fine grasses, others 
entirely of feathers, while others will be 
lined with the silky tufts of that variety of! 



tufted grass which is so common in every 
meadow. 

The Short-billed Marsh Wren has^a 
curious habit of often pulling to pieces any 
nest that has been handled, whether decoy 
or otherwise, so long as it has not begun 
laying in it, for I have repeatedly placed 
a stick a few feet from the nest with the 
bearing noted, only to find the nest gone 
afterwards except for a sort of thin skele- 
ton of grass. 

If the nest contains a set of eggs I do 
not think it is possible to make them de- 
sert, as the two following incidents will 
show. 

On June i, 1892, 1 collected a nest con- 
taining six eggs, but, for some reason, I 
did not have an egg-box (I cannot under- 
stand how it happened), so I left the eggs 
in the nest and laid it, entrance up, on the 
hummock from which it had been cut, 
and began to search for other nests further 
off in the marsh. In about half an hour 
I returned, walking rather carefully in 
order not to overlook it or step on it. 
Just as I reached the edge of the little 
clearing of trampled grass and saw the 
nest, the bird jumped out of it and flew 
away. I felt meaner for taking that nest 
than for all the others I have taken put 
together. I do not know whether she 
would have hatched the eggs or not, but 
she must have been on the nest for some 
time before being frightened away, as the 
eggs were perfectly warm. 

In the other case my brother found a 
nest on July 16 containing seven eggs, 
and, wishing to show it to a friend just as 
it stood, stopped the entrance with a small 
plug of grass. On July 24 he visited it 
again and found that the top had been 
hollowed out, enlarged and lined, so as to 
make another perfect nest just above the 
first one ; the second compartment con- 
tained three eggs. Foolishly enough, we 
left the nest to see if any more eggs would 
be laid, but on visiting it two days later, 



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[Vol. 18-No. I 



the upper nest had been cleaned out by a 
snake, although the lower set was safe. 

The Long-bill, on the contrary, is very 
easily offended. June 5 this year I found 
a nest containing three eggs and left them, 
wishing to take the full set a few days 
later. The nest was in the middle of the 
meadow and could not be reached with- 
out a boat, so I was not able to go to it 
again until June 17, when I found it de- 
serted (the three eggs being cold and wet) , 
although I had handled it only as long as 
it was absolutely necessary to ascertain 
the number of eggs. Although the nest 
was deserted, the birds were close by and 
as noisy as ever, and after a short search 
I found the second nest in a hummock 
hardly five feet from the one in which the 
first was built. This contained five eggs 
slightly incubated, probably the balance 
of the set that would have been laid in the 
first nest. I think the second nest was a 
new one and not a decoy, as otherwise I 
should have noticed it the first day. 

Neither species, so far as I have seen, 
is at all particular about the points of the 
compass, as far as the nest entrances are 
concerned, for the openings are just as 
often on any other side as they are on the 
south side. There does not seem to be 
any rule for this, unless, possibly, that 
when the nest is not in the centre of the 
hummock the entrance is usually in the 
part nearest the outer edge. When on 
the edge of a river or brook, it faces as 
often away from as towards the water. 
The entrance is usually in the side ; but 
in one Long-bills' nest that was built in a 
bunch of " cat-o'nine-tail " leaves, the nest 
was longer and more narrow than usual 
and the entrance near the top. This is an 
unusual case, but there did not seem to be 
space enough for a hole between the leaves. 

The second set of the Short-bill is usu- 
ally laid by the second week of July, but 
sometimes a week or ten days earlier. 
There are from five to seven eggs in this. 



just as in the earlier sets. The Long-bills 
lay again about the first of August, but a 
set of four is the largest I have seen at 
that date. The largest set I have taken 
at any time contained six eggs, but that 
does not appear to be considered a large 
set. 

The horizontal diameter of the Short- 
bills' nest is usually four inches, and the 
vertical four and one half; while the 
Long-bills', although occasionally as small 
as that, are more often very bulky, meas- 
uring four and one half by six inches. 
The entrance of the nests of both species 
is about three-fourths of an inch. 

The eggs of both are about the same 
size, averaging .67 x .47 . This is a larger 
measurement than is usually given for 
Short-bill's eggs, but I have measured 
quite a number and they do not vary much 
from it. Their shape is somewhat variable, 
some being almost exactly like a minia- 
ture Guillemot's eggy but the majority are 
about the shape of the average Warbler's 
eggy the width being equal to a little over 
two-thirds of the length. Some of the 
Long-bills' are nearly spherical, but none 
of the other species are of this shape. 

The eggs are nearly as highly polished 
as those of the Woodpeckers, the Short- 
bill's being pure white while those of the 
Long-bill are light brown, usually evenly 
spotted over the entire surface with slightly 
darker dots, sometimes, however, they are 
very heavily marked with large blotches 
of dark brown, with two or three small 
black dots near the large end, but I have 
only found one set marked in this way. 

The season of incubation lasts about ten 
days and in the second set I believe is 
somewhat assisted by the heat of the sun, 
as I have never found the bird on the nest 
in July, while in May and June it is not 
very difificult to see the grass moving 
slightly as they leave the nest and then to 
Hush them a little way off. 

The songs of the two birds, although 



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II 



similar, are easily distinguished after lis- 
tening to them together for a short time ; 
there is not much music about it, but it is 
strong and lively, and they seem to put 
their whole strength into it. When the 
Short-bill's song is heard, the short grass 
and the nests are not far o££, and that is 
how I first found them. When the nest 
is approached, they give a very deep, 
gutteral chrr-chrr-chrr^ which appears to 
be their alarm note. 

If in hunting for a Short-bill's nest one 
finds a Long-bill, or vice-versa^ the better 
plan is to hunt somewhere else, as, for 
some reason, the two species never build 
anywhere near each other. Altogether 
the two differ almost as much in habits as 
their eggs do in color. 

I will also add that if, while hunting, 
the bird comes close and scolds, the 
chances are nine out of ten that the nest is 
nowhere near, the tenth chance being the 
case when there are young in the nest. 

C. W. Bowles. 

Winter Notes from Stephentown, 
New York. 



''Better late than never." 

A few days ago, while looking over a 
box of notebooks, I found a few notes 
which I wrote up last winter with the in- 
tention of sending them to the *' O & O." 
Other matters engaged my attention at 
the time, and they were forgotten. I 
looked them over ; they did not seem un- 
seasonable at that date, November 5, with 
a howling northwest wind aiid the air out- 
side thick with frosty fiakes of the first 
snow. They interested me. Perhaps they 
will you, should the editor deem it best to 
impose them upon his readers. 

Winter Notes, 1891-92. 

On the whole, we have had a rather 
mild winter in this locality. The mercury 
has dropped to fourteen degrees below 
zero several times, but the cold snaps 
were of short duration. 



Flocks of Black Ducks noted as late as 
Christmas. 

A few Belted Kingfishers have remained 
with us all winter. It seems rather odd 
to hear their rattling notes, and see them 
flash by over the ice-bound streams. My 
first record of their wintering here. 

Tree Sparrows have been here in abund- 
ance since their arrival from the North 
last fall. Every morning I am greeted 
with a medley of their low, sweet notes, 
wafted across the creek from a tangle of 
alders, rank weeds and vines on the op- 
posite bank from the store. 

Slate-colored Juncos have also wintered 
here in small numbers. 

Mourning Doves noted up to date. One 
has stayed around the grist mill the past 
two weeks, feeding on the grain thrown 
out to it by the miller. 

In December one of our local trappers 
caught a magnificent specimen of the Bald 
Eagle in a fox trap. The same man has 
taken several fine Red-tailed Hawks in 
the same manner. 

Meadow Larks noted Febuary 2, and 
several times since. 

It is with great pleasure that I record 
the presence of Redpolls in considerable 
numbers. Not a single specimen was 
noted last season, while in the fall of 18S9 
they commenced to arrive in large flocks 
about the 15th of November, and were 
here in multitudes all winter, staying un- 
til late in the spring of 1890. 

My time afield has been very limited 
this winter. Have seen no Snowy Owls, 
Pine Grosbeaks, Pine Siskins or Crossbills 
myself. All, with the exception of the 
Pine Siskin, have been reported to me 
several times by hunters. A flock of 
twenty Horned Larks, the true Alpestris^ 
were seen February 5. 

Snowflakes have been seen in immense 
flocks, at intervals, since the middle of 
December. 

Prairie Horned Larks were again noted 



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[Vol. iS-No. I 



on February 8, a flock of ten feeding on 
the horse droppings in the road. Seen 
almost daily since. None were noted 
during December and January. 

Our winter residents are all noted in 
about the usual numbers. On short tramps 
through wood and brush near the village, 
I flushed Ruffed Grouse much oftener 
than I expected to. It's a wonder to me 
that we have a single one of these beauti- 
ful birds left. Reason : this locality is 
blessed with a gang who make hunting 
for the markets a business. 

Indeed extermination has advanced rap- 
idly during the past ten years. Last fall 
I stood a sunflower stalk, crowned by a 
mammoth seed head, up against the crotch 
of one of the apple trees in the yard, and 
for about a month a pair of White-breasted 
Nuthatches have made daily visits to the 
yard to feed on the seeds. They are get- 
ting quite tame, and will come to the 
stalk for seeds when I am standing so near 
I could touch them with my hand. After 
picking out a seed they fly to a large elm 
twenty feet away, stick it into a crevice 
of the rough bark, and then hammer it 
open with their bill, devouring the con- 
tents, seemingly, with great gusto and a 
profusion of Nuthatch talk. 

I noticed last winter that the Nuthatches 
did not eat all of the seeds which th^y 
carried to the big elm, but left many 
wedged in the crevices of the bark. I 
found later that they had a purpose in 
doing this, as they made frequent visits to 
the tree to feed on them until along into 
the summer. 

February lo, while at Pontoosac Lake, 
near Pittsfield, Mass., on a fishing trip I 
noticed numbers of Crows sitting on the 
trees along the shore. Now and then one 
of them would swoop down near the holes 
where the lines ^were set, and pick up 
something. I soon found it was the dead 
minnows they were after. A resident of 
the locality told me that on the day before 



they stole two fine pickerel from one man. 
We have only a small flock of English 
Sparrows in the village this winter. The 
Great Northern Shrikes nearly extermin- 
ated them here last winter. Speaking of 
Shrikes, reminds me that I haven't seen a 
single specimen of borealis this winter. 

Silence now reigns on wooded hillside 
and in timbered swamp, where not many 
evenings since the loud hootings of the 
Great Horned Owl were heard nightly, 
which tells us that Mrs. Bubo now covers 
her treasures white, and that we must 
throw business cares aside for a day afield, 
if we expect to get fresh sets this season. 

The increase in numbers and activity of 
the Crows, the peculiar, joyous notes they 
are now uttering, foretell the near ap- 
proach of spring, and warn us that ere 
long there will be a break up, and we 
shall be gathering notes on the Spring 
migration. Benjamin Hoag, 

February 20, 1892. 



Early Nesting of the California 
Thrasher. 



January 6, while hunting for Partridge 
among the foot-hills, I discovered a nest 
placed about eighteen inches from the 
ground in a sage-bush. On coming near- 
er a bird was noticed sitting on the nest, 
which flew as I approached. It W4is 
readily identified as a California Thrasher. 
I was greatly surprised to find that the 
nest was not an old one but contained three 
eggs of this bird, perfectly normal in size 
and markings. They were far advanced 
in incubation, so far, in fact, that they 
could not be preserved and the young 
squirmed when taken from the shell. 

With this exception, the earliest record 
I have of the breeding of this bird is April 
24, when young were found old enough 
when young were found old enough to 
leave the nest, and the latest is May 23, 
when a set of three fresh eggs was taken. 

H. M. H. 

Riverside, Cal. 



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^3 



Distribution of Illinois Birds. 



Last fall, Mr. W. E. Loucks, of Peoria, 
and myself decided to attempt the task of 
ascertaining the geographical distribution 
and breeding range of certain Illinois 
birds. 

In following out this plan, we have se- 
lected a number of birds for 1893, and ask 
of the ornithologists of Illinois certain in- 
formation about them. A number have 
responded to the circulars sent them ask- 
ing aid ; but we still desire others, espe- 
cially in the central and southern parts of 
the state. 

We earnestly request any one having 
information will write to us, and if circu- 
lars have not been sent to them, we will 
be very glad to furnish them with any in- 
formation in regard to the work. 

Now about the information we want. 

We do not ask you to make future ob- 
servations. We desire any information of 
which you may now be possessed, how- 
ever little. 

If you have not found the species, it is 
imjwrtant, for several of those on the list 
are only found in certain localities, and we 
wish to have them fully defined. 

The reports may all be sent in at one 
time, or monthly, which will give an op- 
portunity for observation this season for 
any data you may not have in your notes 
should you desire to obtain it. 

We would be glad to have you state the 
abundance of the species in your locality 
and as nearly as possible how many nests 
found, number of eggs laid, and place of 
building. 

If you report monthly your report should 
be in by the tenth of the preceding month, 
in order that it may be combined in time 
for publication. 

To make a success of this work we will 
need all the aid we can get, and our work 
will be valuable in proportion to the num- 
ber of localities we receive reports from. 



Any one who can contribute even but a 
little is requested to send it in. 

A list of those who will aid us will be 
ready for the February "O & O." and if 
possible a description of the locality. 

The first report will be in at that time. 

It is our hope at some time in the near 
future to have a catalogue that will give 
the geographical distribution of every bird 
found in the state, but the amount of aid 
we receive now must determine our future 
course. Dr. A. C, Murchisoit, 

Kewanee, 111. 

Abnormal Coloring of a Song Spar- 
row's Eggs. 

On June 18, 1892, I found a nest of the 
Song Sparrow containing four eggs, three 
of the Sparrow and one of the Cowbird. 
There are no two alike and to the observer 
they present the appearance of four differ- 
ent species of eggs, so greatly do they dif- 
fer in their marking. 

No. I. Size .80 X .60; is a very hand- 
some egg. The ground color of the larger 
end for about one half its length is light 
brown, the remaining half pale blue, im- 
maculate. On the larger end there is a 
blotch of reddish brown about three eighths 
of an inch in diameter and a few scatter- 
ing spots of the same color. The shading 
of the brown half into the blue is quite 
abrupt. 

No. 3. .80 X. 59 ; ground color, pale 
blue, immaculate for about two thirds its 
length, with a wreath of reddish brown, 
and a few scattering spots of light and dark 
brown around the greater end. 

No. 3. .75 X .55 ; grayish white, speck- 
led all over with various shades of reddish 
brown. The spots are larger and more 
confluent at the larger end. With the ex- 
ception of its slightly larger size, it is in- 
distinguishable from the typical Field 
Sparrow's egg. There was nothing pecu- 
liar in the material or situation of the nest, 
neither is there any doubt of their identity. 

G. L, IL 

Bethel, Conn. 



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H 



ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. iS-No. I 



THE 



ORNITHOLOGISTr^'OOLOGIST 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF 

NATURAL HISTORY, 

ESPECIALLY DEVOTED TO THE STUDY OF 

BIRDS, 

THEIR NESTS AND EGGS, 

AND TO THE 

INTERESTS OF NATURALISTS. 

Under the Editorial Management of 
FRANK B. WEBSTER, . . . Hyde Park, Mass. 
J. PARKER NORRIS, . *. . PhUadelphia, Pa. 

PUBUSHBD AT THE 

MUSEUM AND NATURALISTS* SUPPLY DEPOT 

OF THE 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY, 

INCORPORATED, 

HYDE PARK, MASS. 



The O. & O. is mailed each issue to every paid subscriber. 
If you fail to receive it, notify us. 



In presenting to our readers the volume 
of the «'0. & O." of which this is the 
first issue, the same general plan v\^ill be 
followed as in 1S92. 

While we shall present extracts from 
other publications and clippings from the 
press, they will not be used to the exclu- 
sion of valuable and interesting notes and 
communications that may be sent in. 

We are continually receiving letters of 
praise, advice and criticisms from our 
friends, which are cordially welcomed and 
carefully considered. We shall endeavor 
to manage the publication to meet the 
popular views of the majority of our sub- 
scribers. 

We again announce for the information 
of our many new friends, what is well 
understood by the old subscribers, that the 
articles and notes that are used are all free- 
will offerings. 

We do not pay for contributions. 

The magazine is a medium for exchange 
of practical knowledge between naturalists, 
and the benefit that is thus obtained is the 
remuneration. 

We are particularly desirous of having 



notes of interest sent to us from all parts 
of the country. 

ADVERTISING. 

It would seem needless to call the atten- 
tion of parties who have specimens for 
sale or for exchange to the value of an ad- 
vertising medium of a magazine like the 
"O. &0.," which is circulated among 
the class of people who are interested in 
such goods throughout the entire country. 
Specimen copies are sent by us to every 
person whom we know to be interested in 
natural history, and are not sent out at hap- 
hazard. 

The following letter is to the point : — 

"Washington, D.C. 
"Publishers of the ' O. & O.' 

"Gentlemen, — Thanks to my ad. in 'O* 
& O.,' I obtained a cane gun from a party 
in Alissouri after exhausting all other 
means of trying to obtain one. There 
does not appear to be any for sale by deal- 
ers in such goods, and up to the time of 
getting an answer from my ad. I had des- 
paired of obtaining one. E* J' Brown J""^ 



" Second-class Postage, — The terms 
and conditions of the postal law should be 
so definite as to be easily understood. It 
works great injustice and loss to publishers 
to permit the Postmaster-General to con- 
strue it, as he does at present, according 
to his own individual wishes. Favoritism 
and oppression have both been practiced 
in this particular by the present Postmas- 
ter-General. This statement is suscepti- 
ble of positive proof. An opportunity for 
such arbitrary rulings should be made im- 
possible." 

The above suggestion to Congress is 
worthy of attention. For some time past 
a vigorous protest has been made by a 
New York publication, " Printer's Ink,'* 
against what is claimed to be a gross in- 
justice. The charge has been of such a 
clear, positive and ringing character that 
it would seem as if it was time for the 
public to insist upon a full investigation. 



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January. 1S93.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



15 



Brief Notes, Correspondence, and 
Clippings. 

"I am at home to-night midst a con- 
fusion of manuscript proofs, birds and 
mammals in my museum hall. The num- 
ber of birds amount to something over 
1500, half of which number are my own 
work ; many have been sent by other 
taxidermists for the World's Fair exhibit. 
Chief among my own work is an African 
Ostrich and four Flamingos. The mam- 
mals number seventy-five, from the Chipn 
munk to the Bear. About twenty heads 
of various animals, including a fine Buf- 
falo head of my mounting 15 years ago. 
The fishes and reptiles have had a share 
of my attention in all manner of prepara- 
tion. 

"If no unforeseen accident happens, I 
shall be able to deliver my book soon after 
the 25th." Oliver Davie, 

Pine Grosbeaks were very plenty the 
last of December. My brother and my- 
self saw over 40, in scattered flocks of 3 to 
14, at Ponkapog, Mass. J, H. Bowles. 

At Dedham, Mass., they are reported 
in numbers during the first three weeks in 
January. 

The following gentlemen were elected 
officers of the California Academy of 
Sciences on January 3, 1893 : — 

President, H. W. Harkness ; first Vice- 
President, H. H. Behr; second Vice- 
President, J. G. Cooper; Corresponding 
Secretary, T. S. Brandegee ; Recording 
Secretary, .J. R. Scupham ; Treasurer, 
L. H. Foote; Librarian, Carlos Troyer ; 
Director of Museum, J. Z. Davis ; Trus- 
tees, W. C. Burnett, Charles F. Crocker, 
D. E. Hayes, E. J. Molera, George C. 
Perkins, Adolph Sutro, John Taylor. 

Mr. George Atkins, of Pittsburg, Pa., 
has a very fine collection of live Pheas- 
ants, including Golden, Silver, Lady Am- 
herst, Reeves, English, Mongolian, Versi- 



color Hoosfield-blue, Lyn-eaters, Elliott, 
White and several crosses. 

I have just mounted three Golden Eagles 
killed in the vicinity of Columbus, Ohio. 

Oliver Davie, 

*'John Bachman — Letters and Mem- 
ories of his Life," $3.00, is a book that 
should be in the hands of all ornithologists. 
We have a few copies on hand. 

The large fire in Boston on January 10 
came very near burning the building occu- 
pied by our friend, Joseph M. Wade. 
The surrounding buildings were destroyed.. 
In the midst of the excitement Mr. Wade 
remained at his post, in order that his 
publication might be out on time. 

We procured several fine Lesser Prairie 
Hens in the meat this month. 

Nesting of the Carolina Wren. 

While the Carolina Wren is reported as 
occurring in nearly all parts of the state of 
Pennsylvania, it is exceedingly abundant 
along the WissahickonCreek,Philadelphia. 

This rather shy bird spends most of its 
time in the vicinity of water, around bush 
piles and old logs, and may often be seen 
circling about the trunks of trees, collect- 
ing beetles and insects. 

I have found as high as thirteen nests of 
this species in two days, all of which were 
built in the ruined walls of old houses and 
mills, except two, which were constructed 
in holes in stumps of trees. The nest is 
composed of moss, leaves, weeds, and 
grass. 

The eggs, generally six or seven in num- 
ber, creamy white, spotted and blotched 
with reddish brown and lilac, measure 
about .56X.75 to .60X.80. 

I would like to hear (through the col- 
umns of this paper) from some of the 
readers of the " O & O." as to the abund- 
ance of the Carolina Wren in their States. 
J/. Z. C. Wilde. 



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ATTENTION, COLLECTORS AND SPORTSMEN. 

FREDERICK L. SMALL, MANAGER, 

Hr'a.ke 'Vle^w Mlstilo-ndss Hotel, 

PASADENA, PASCO COUNTY, FLORIDA, 

Will >;ive his i>crsonaI aitcntion and assistance t<) all. ( lanic and Fish plentiful. Location j>crfcct for seciirinj^ health. 

Terms low. 



EXCHANGE AND WANTS. 



1 inch, one time 


$ >^ 


I inch, three times 


1.20 


Dealers Advert i^mcuts — i inch 


l.OO 


NO VAKtATlDN. 





A Collector Wanted 

To collect Animal Skins, for such material and tools as are 
used by Taxidermists in their business. Anything I carr>' 
in stock will be cxchanRed for the above, or will pay cash for 
selected skins. Send list of what you can i;ct and I will quote 
terms. JAMES P. HAHHITT, 

lo Hodges Avenue, Taunton, Mass. 

CLUB RATES. 

Sportsman and Tourist, 40-paa^e monthly, $1.00 

Ornithologist and Oologist. i6-pa</e " 1.00 

BOTH FOR ONE YEAR, $1.50. 

The Sportsman and Tourist is a ver>' popular magazine. 

For^Sale. 

ANTELOPK Skins in condition to mount, from 
$4.50 to 6.50 each ; or will exchange for spe- 
cimens or anything we can use. Can furnish to 
order fine winter Skins of Badger and Covote for 
mounting. \VM. HOWLING cS: SOX, 

Taxidermists, Minnk.mmjlis, Minn. 

I HAVE a few choice sets of the following for 
exchange: A.O.U. Nos. 309, ^^7/^, 366, 41:5. 
475, dim. Address FRED M. DILLE,* 

806 Boston Building, Dknver, Coi.. 

THE MINERIILOGIST'S RECORD BOOK 

Containing spaces for recording 450 specimens, 
by F. R. Stkarns. Price, jj and ^o cents. For 
sale bv 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER CO. 

Books for Sale. 





TAXIDERMY — Webster's, vols. 10 and it O. & O. 

illustrated $2 00 

Batty's, illustrated . 

>taynard's .... 

Homaday's .... 
NEST EGCS — Davies', cloth .... 

Davies', paper 

Maynard s, cloth 

Capcn's, colored 
BIRDS — Coucs* Key .... 

Ridgway's Manual 
BUTTERFLIES— Maynard's fN.A.) 

Maynard's (rsew England) 

French's (Eastern U.S.) 

Harris' Insects 

Harris' Insects, colored . 

Packard's .... 

](1HN B.\CHM.\N— Memories of his \Mc 
^IODERN RIFLE.S— c;ould .... 



1 50 

2 50 

I 75 
I 25 

I 75 
1500 

750 
75c 

1 50 
6 50 

2 00 
4 50 ' 
6 50 
500 \ 
2 00 I 
2 00 , 



BIRI75EGOJ 

GLASSETESI 

NATURAI.ISTS'5, 
SUPPLIES/^BOOkl 

UlusTrated Catalogue for Z <t Sta^np 

AT ONCE. 

Birds, in Skins or Stuffed. 
Black-throated Loon, Pomarine Jieger. 
King Eider, ? , Wilson Plover, 

Hutchins* (Joose, Bell's Vireo, 

Philadelphia Vireo. Trumpeter Swan, 

In quoting prices, give full particulars. 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER CO. 

WE WANT AT ONCE a large, handsome 
Buff and White Cat. Will pa v $1.50 for 
\ it dead. Want it sent from some locality where 
j the express charges will not exceed 75 cents. 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER CO.. 

Ilvde Park, Mass. 

BEST qUALITY. FULL SIZES. LOW PRICES. 

Also Taxidermists' Supplies and Papier 
Mache Heads. , 
Send for Catalof^e. 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER CO. 
Hyde Park, Mass. 



FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER CO. 



FOR SALE. 

Baird, Brewer and Ridgwav's N. A. Birds, 
Nutall's Ornithologv (Chamberlain's revision), 
also any other book published on this subject, 
direct from publishers at prices from 10 to 20 
per cent lower than theirs. Also birds' eggs in 
large or small quantities. 

STEPHEN J. ADAMS, 

Cornish, M.mne. 



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COLLECTING TUBE OR AUXILIARY BARREL. 

WILL FIT 12 OR 10 GAUGE GUN. 



We have sold niaiiy of these Tubes and they give perfect satis- 
faction. They are filled to use 32 Brass vShells* and For collecting 
sniail birds, cannot be beat. 

BARREL, $1.50. 50 BRASS SHELLS, 60 Cents, 
WAD CITTTER, 60 Cents. DECAPPEB and LOADER, 60 Cents. 

OR THE LOT COMPLETE, $3.00. 

EVERY COLLECTOR SHOULD HAVE ONE, 



HYDE PARK. MASS. 






288 EXCHANGE ST.. fli^^B^. NEW HAVEN, CT. 

A. Ht V E R R 1 L L "Tax idermis t and Natu ralist. 

itfin>^ A\n AxniALi^ sri FFKi) ash moisted is the best mannek 

ANU AT LMWKt^T PRIONS. 

A Full Line of Foreign and Domestic Birdskins Constantly on Hand. 



llwvliijf jusii ruhiriiL**] from Co^tA Hk-a, f \tA\t nn band a lurgi! «*jllCM*t1i>ii of Oj^^t^i Kliviii UlnU, liuUnflnin 
' Tirnw Inif!^ "H'l Klet'lrotypt'is v>i' HIifKnn'l Anhiiiiil'h for hjiIi' ur iiiailii io order. 



W 1 11 N K H ' S WAU»1,Klt. 




i Al'k MAT WAItHLEll 



AG E N TS - W A N J E D O N ..SALARY 

or coisiuiisjiioin toiiainltc iKe ncwH^^ikni Chi;riikal Ink ErstMrvg 
Pencil, The qiutkest ;rtul gwatejit ^elUng luAcliy ever [jro- 
ducn^i. EnLMu*, ink thfiroitghfy in iwo frccondi*. No d^bnuion of 
pn]i^t. Wcirks like {nngic, aoo in 500 iter cent, prntit. Qii« 
Aifcnr^ «:tk.s ^mtjunli^d in $&»> in %i]f da^s: another $33 in two 
Ilitit»r», Previuui ex|KirteiK»i not nctrewiify. For teritt-i anLJ fuU 
liaiiiciiliir^, ridilrtjit 

THE MONROE ERASER MFG. CO., 

I.il Cfqwi^ie, Wis,, X +57, 



JAMES P. BABBITT, 
Taxidermist, 

And dealer in Birds* Sklsu^ ljct;s, Stlfkicd Kihus, umiI yup- 

plies for the Na,tLifiili5l and I'axidcimifit. 

Send lUtnp lot list. 

13 HODGES AVENUE, TAUNTON. MAS>. 



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CiLiiaries, singer^ 
Jiiva Sparrows . 

Curd inn is , . . 
'English Goklfinch 
AlVicjin Finches v^irifiy , 
Brazilian Lardiiuil 
Africiin Parrots, |rrriv 
Cuban Fsirrottt 
Mei^ican V i^llnw-Headed Ptir- 
rot 



PRICES FALL OF 1892* 

^:;.5o to ^.mi each tininca Piji^s, young 

u\o to ^.00 each ChthiCJi Pi^^, Abvssiniau 

ij^o to 7,50 each Rn bbits, white, pink cvrs, o 

I ,\o to 2/50 ewch Rubhits, white, pink eves, > 



1.50 to 2.50 trtch 

:.0(i to ^.ao pair 

^^,00 to 4*od each 

i5.oye4ich 

^.00 each 



Rabbits, black and white 
RabbitNt jit-ny :md wliite 
Rabbits, lop earst old 
Rabbits, lop ears, young 
Ferret ^t rint^ed for use 
Monkey*. Manno>*et 
Monkevt^t Java 
Monkeys, Ring taik 
Grav Squirrels 



Dogii» (Special Quotation given)* 





$1.^0 patr 




3,00 piiir 


td 


J. 50 pair 


oung 


.75 pair 




-75 P«»r 




.75 pair 




Tkoo pair 




5.00 parr 




%.VCi i-'ftch 




^.00 each 




ii.tx>each 


12.00 to 


1^.00 each 


1.50 to 2,50 each 



^*'Jt> t« 15,00 each 
A jna/on B 1 11 e-f ron t ed Pa rroi 1 0.00 to i^.^xt eac h 

ANIMALS. 
Guinea Pig!^, common, breeders 2.00 pair 

Address-, J^^ Ivtll^t.'XT:^!, 

Boston Bird Store, 119 Eliot St., Boston. Mass. 



NATURALISTS' SUPPLY DEPOT. 

ARTIFICIAL GLASS EYES, 

Leaves, Wire, Sands, Shields, T.nv, Tags, pDtters' Chiy, Cutters, 
Scalpels, ForcL-ps. Cops, Glass Shades, Needles. Plyers, 

Arsenical Soap, Pins, Winding Thread, Books, Insect Pins, Sheets 
Cork. Labels. Stul'fed Birds, Birds' Skins, Birds' Eggs. 

NOW IS THE TlME~TO SEND IN ORDERS FOR YOUR 
FALL SUPPLIES. 

T»«IOEHMT WrtHE IM THE BEST JI.tSMKK. 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY. 

HYDE PARK, MASS. 



TANNINE. 

One bottle Tans twelve Fox SRiiis, or ot^er Skins 



IT HA.^ BEEN V^ED SUCCI-^iiSFrLLV 

READ THIS. 



THRtlE VRARS. 



Kraflk Bbkc Webster Company, **y^7T^^;V^\t^' '^ Tannin* and if ymi have a pHnictl Ot^bs*; iin h^ n«, bei.ia« the ^ttf- 
t'v«u beticr. Knd.iJ^d find -me tl<>llaf tor »aini.% t- At-HBRT A. Aur, 

HERD THESE DIRECTIONS. 

FOR TANNING SKINS THAT ARC TO BE USED FOR MATS OR «OBrS 

Tirr mi^ny ycurs in pi^p:ifmii Sheep bku^^ l..r bru^ m^t.. I M. .a.c ^ncl .pnckn.^. *ttJi 



TANNINE. 

rhi* Liquor *a^ u^ed by Pf >i i. 
whieh it cao M «s^ will ounuieiia it lo an. 



DIRECTIONS FOR USE. 

ibt; LiqiiiJT ttMb^ «'^j'^^*^^^ j^'"' U;;/*'^.^ l^,!^ jvmi,.i,vc the fat anil flcj^h ibut may h: ^m the suflac 

^nJ^ PRICE $1,00 P£R BOTTLE. 

FRANK BLAKE WEBTSER CO., MANUFACTURER'S Agt. 

'^ HYDE PARK, MASS. 



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rriKANSAS' GRAND SHOW, j «^;.: ™r 



This 

Contain a ^ 
the Article on ) 



By LEWrs LrNDSEY Dyche. 



ESTABLISH ED 1875. 

ORNITHOLOGIST 

— AND — 

OULOGIST. 

VOL, XVIII. ^<^^^ r "^ ' ^^^ No. 2. 





FEBRUARY, 



CONTENTS. 



PK*?tributiou us the Lon^-Emeti Owl jind Cor>|ierV 
Hawk ill lUUioTS . . .... 

Levvi^ Lindsey Dyche ..... 

In the Great Dismal Swamp . , . 

The Acadian Owl in Philadelphia County, Pa. 

Are Spot led K^jgs ot Xaiive Goldfinchi^?^ Common? 

EffSf!* of Warblers in Collection of Thomas 1 L Jackson 

Brief Notes, Correivpondence» and Clipping'^ 

Winter Reddents of Milton. Wiscotisfrr , 

A World'*. P'air Suggestion 



\\\ E. Loucks . 
Chicago '' Inter-Ocean ' 
T. Gilbert Pearson 
M* L. C. Wilde 
llurvcv M, Hall 



Floyd Coon 
AlKrt Lane 



>6 

28 

-'9 



ST. 00 PER ANNUM. SINGLI COPY, TO CENTS. 
PUBLISH EU TiV 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY, 

IIYDE: PARKr ^lASS. 
Entered ;ii Hyde P^iik Pmt^sfflci Nt Feocmd-dft^i 3klalter. 



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ATTENTION, COLLECTORS AND SPORTSMEN, 

FREDERICK L. SMALL, MANAGER, 
PASADENA, PASCO COUNTY, rLORiDA. 



\\'\l\ civt' lyts t^r^astnl :illL-rilJoii ;iud ■, 



:ikL i Jiinit ^iKi hish jjlcivtuul- l.fc-ntini ptrle^ci for sctiiji-iijj^ health. 



FRANK B. ARMSTRONG, 

I>KAl.Kk IS 
% 

Birds' Skins and Eggs, 

B/^0 H\VS ViLLE, TEX A S. 

Will give special atlentioii to the collect inn t tor 
?vcientific purpa^es. af all B^rd**, TlcaKt^, Rtfpt^1t'^i 
iiiitive to tJie intt^nor and border of Mevico. rmd 
XV ill turni^h cjireful tliila rn regiird h* suinc. 
Cor respoi^dc lice respeclfnlly Mdicltt?d, 

FRANK U- ARMSTRONG. 

H. H. S C. S. BRIMLEY. 

COLLECTORS, 

Fir*!;tH.lusK Bird aud Mamfnal Sktns and Egg*^. 
Also ReplHcs, natracliiiin^, Embrvos* cic fn it\- 
tohnl, Fiitl du!a h\ ivil Cii^u<, Write for priirc-Jisf . 

TH E NIITIOIL EXCHANGE r:^::s-i>;r^;" 

SINI.S^ CiiRia.St'uM>LM r; TAiriiiT nv Mail 
.■\fltlrf-i, •>'\i\\\ *itaiii]-. M'ty 7.*4, Klkltart, Indiana. 



B^ 



GEORGE B, BADGER, 



Oolleototv 



CAREFI'LLV PRE PARED 

BIRDS' AND MAMMALS* SKINS, 

With full scleiUifii: data* 
AisQ Beautifnlly Finished Fur Rugs, 

C*i 1 r f #» p < J n d e II ce ko 1 i c i t l- d . 

SANTA CRUZ, CAL, 



y\/ l^p^ J A DI ME WILL DPI 

K>^ry H*>Y and GIRL who (vttc* iq rciui i^plendtJ Slorici^^ 
SkcichQ, ;;tnfi be^iMiiful FoefliJi should dub^crilie lof THb 
AMF.RICA^ YULM; FnLKS, ;i t^auttfiil Illuiit»ied 
Mnnihly Ma^a^Ebie, CKuKlishert m t^71i> Its stones are the 
ticifv iw.HT Eh»t cwti be nbtnificnJ \xuti\ iHe ftircmtisi w filer* of 
Juvenile LtterAtkire^ and eve:iry i«fiii«^ i« fitted with gtvKl ihin^. 
I'hc R.^);ii|^r jtiibsLfiplior pncc i* $\s^ n ye^ir^ tuil if yon wilU 

CUT THIS OUT t;'r;r fl SILVER DIME 

Riid yxMit txMfw w\\4 niJdrvM, MC ^iwill ^i-ml ynu the rnag^Lzine 
I ;Si\ M<i>j]ih«'>n iriiiK A^ldrcw^^ 

AMEKLCAN VU13NG FOLKS, 

^ xM^NCUItSTKlf, ^M. 

Lily of the Desert. 

A £rGg( NovvHjr; tp\>ws in i^nnd^ tliilbi $i.oo each, 

We make ^ t»pecialtvof Nutiv^ American Psdni 
;ind Evertjrccn Trets'and Flower tScedi*, Bulb«., 
Ferri;*^, Cacti find other planfi^. 

ORCFTT SKED AND VlsK^V CO.. 

San DruGo, Cau 

Send 25 tM'i. for st'cd of Liitlivrn*y sp!endelJS»^ 

''THE PRIDE OF CALIFORNIA." 

AGENTS WANTED 
To introduce ihe hkst •vKllim* article 
IN J HK WimLPj. Libcr;jl commission. Estclu- 
slve ttfrritorv* Acldrcss, uUb r^lunip, 

H. A. MFMAW, M,D.. 

Flkhxri. Tn». 

Home Course of Reading 



PHYSICAL CULTURE. 

I 

. St*nd i-tamp for purtkuLir^. Addivs^i, 

! BOX 704., ELKHART, IND. 

jQTAMPS, COINS, CURIOS,^^.^.' 

\r\ lasu*^ in the jii^imp Ime, AGENTS WANTED. 

Stafii^j and Ciirin Lj*tfl|*igiic fur fiamp. W. F. i;KF\S>i ^ 3^7 

IImavnax Stki itTj San FkAWciscij, Cai., 




EMfEyDVBA BlEFEHCEi Of/i f $BQ flft MflE, 
iSfl te T A TOTI AllTltf pt} S «ft(rtj one^haif the coH 

w- » -^^P^A— ma fri^4 200,00 f^fr^A^tm 

jf/^^^^MW^moiith ana exfxnaer ^^0911 
The beat local and irnifPllnff n^cntA wanted eTerr- 
wb«r« . W rite ftl wnoe Iv r 0! rcu 1 ars and r holce tor* 
TitoTjx addrepaA-'O. lluLhmrt, pAtentf'4\{'Ari»Dr 

Focu^rTratmlQi^fl with 200 i^tiiftraTed d,e«lMiw Mod 
prle^H, (j«Dt free to imf who want f^ucf Iroa ant 
wU^work or cltf. cemetery aoeJ firm feooei,8lit 



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ORNITHOLOGIST 

— AND — 

OOLOGIST. 



$x.oo per 
Annum. 



PUBLISHED BY THE FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY. 

ESTABLISHED MARCH, 1875. 



Vol. XVIII. HYDE PARK, MASS., FEBRUARY, 1893. 



Single Copy 
10 cents. 

No. 2. 



Distribution of the Long-Eared Owl 
and Cooper's Hawk in Illinois. 



A synopsis of the plan of ascertaining the 
distribution of some twenty-two species of 
birds in the State of UHnois, was presented 
in the preceding number of this magazine. 
It is now intended to say a little regarding 
the material to be used and the contri- 
butors of the same. 

This material, on which this and succeed- 
ing articles will be based, consists of the 
notes and obsenations contributed by those 
who have collected and observed in Illinois 
fields, and of the valuable information se- 
cured from lists and catalogues, both State 
and local. 

A great deal of difficulty has been experi- 
enced in inducing collectors to furnish their 
notes or observations on these species. 
Many circulars were sent, many letters writ- 
ten, many entreaties made, but without 
avail. Probably one out of every dozen 
would respond with a favorable answer; 
others found their daily duties too pressing 
to afford any assistance ; some paid no at- 
tention to the request, and a few were skepti- 
cal. It is with pleasure, however, that we 
are able to present the list of contributors 
herein given. This list is not as large as we 
had hoped to have it, and there are great 
gaps in certain portions of the State which 
need filling. Information is still desired 
from all, but more particularly from those in 
the central, east-central, southern and west- 
ern parts, and also from those living in ad- 



joining States, in close proximity to the 
State line. Although the less experienced 
collectors are welcome, we should like to see 
the more experienced ones take hold. There 
are some in the State able to do much for 
the work, and we trust they will give this 
matter their prompt attention. 

Catalogues of the birds of Illinois are not 
exceedingly numerous, but those we do 
have, however, make up in quality that 
which they lack in quantity. I shall not 
enter into detail on an ornithological bibli- 
ography, but make brief mention of the 
more important lists which will be con- 
sulted. 

Probably the oldest of any note is Kenni- 
cott's "Catalogue of the animals obsened 
in Cook County, Illinois,*' but more mod- 
em lists have since superseded it. Mr. 
Robert Ridgway figures very prominently in 
Illinois ornithology, and his numerous pa- 
pers are valuable additions to our libraries. 
Although many of the readers are undoubt- 
edly well acquainted with these, special 
mention is made of " The Ornithology of 
Illinois," by Robert Ridgway, Part i. Na- 
tural History Survey of Illinois. No com- 
ments are necessary ; we find it of great 
! value. Mr. K. W. Nelson's two valuable pa- 
pers, " Birds of Northeastern Illinois " and 
" Notes upon birds observed in Southern 
; Illinois between July 17 and September 4, 
I 1875," are too well known to be dwelt 
upon. " Migration in the Mississippi Val- 
ley," by \V. W. C:ooke, carried on some 
years ago on a co-operative plan, needs no 



Copyxight, 1893, by Frank Blake Webster CoMi'ANY. 



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[Vol. iS-No. 2 



introduction to the readers of this magazine. 
Beside the above are others well worthy of 
mention would space permit. 

ir. E. Loucks, 

C'ontributors living within the State have 
the Counties in which they reside annexed, 
and numbered to correspond with those on 
the map. 

J. E. Dickinson, Winnebago Co., No. 3. 
Y. A. Gregory, Winnebago Co., No. 3. 
W. K. Pratt, I^ke Co., No. 6. 
Gordon Schanck, I^ke Co., No. 6. 
O. H. Swazey, Lake Co., No. 6. 
George F. Morcom, Cook Co., No. 7. 



George B. Holmes, Cook Co., No. 7. 

D. A. Young, Cook Co., No. 7. 

H. Gillingham, Cook Co., No. 7. 

J>. W. Nichols, DeKalb Co., No. 10. 

Burton Brown, Whiteside C^o., No. 13. 

Dr. A. C. Murchison, Henr\' Co., No. 16. 

A. Hamfeldt, LaSalle Co., No. 18. 

R. M. Barnes, Marshall Co., No. 25. 

R. M. Frisbey, Jr., Marshall Co., No. 25. 

Virginius Chase, Stark Co., No. 26. 

W. S. Strode, M.I)., Fulton Co., No. s^,, 
' W. S. Cobleigh, Fulton Co., No. 2^2^. 
\ B. F. Bolt, Peoria Co., No. 34. 
I W. E. I>ouoks, Peoria Co., No. 34. 
' D. Meixsell, Tazewell Co., No. 36. 




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G. C. Pearson, Vermillion Co., No. 40. 
Charles Wells, Ix)gan Co., No. 45. 
W. L. Jones, St. Claire Co., No. 75. 
C. B. Vandercook, Marion Co., No. 77. 
William B. Caulk, Jefferson Co., No 84. 
Rev. J. C. Elliot, Perry Co., No. 88. 
G. W. Rearden, Gallatin Co., No. 92. 
Prof. L. E. Baird, Jackson Co., No. 95. 
O. Widmann, Old Orchard, Mo. 
Philo Smith, Jr., St. Louis, Mo. 
C. P. Fore, Wayland, Mo. 
C. J. Lemen, Uniontown, Ky. 
Burtis H. Wilson, Davenport, Iowa. 

y. E. Dickinson, No. 3. 

(R) Common. 

Breeds -using an old crow or scjuirrel's 
nest. 

Complete sets about April i ; one brood. 

Sets, 5 to 7. 9 eggs average 1.58 x 1.37. 

Set 1-3, 1.61X1.29; 1.67x1.27; 1.63 
X 1.28. 

Brood remains with old birds through the 
following winter. 

Food, Meadow Mice, Moles, White-footed 
Mice. 

Common names : " Cat Owl " and " Little 
Horned Owl." 

F, A. Gregory, No. 3. 

Not found. 
W, E, Pratt, No. 6. 

Two sets, one of 4 and one of 5, on April 
12, 1890. 

As he has found only these two sets in five 
years' collecting, we may conclude it is a 
rather rare resident in Cook and I>ake 
Counties. 

Gordon Schanck, No. 6. 

Has no record of the Ix)ng-eared Owl. 

O, H, Swazcy, No. 6. 

Has not met it. 

L, W, Nichols, No. 10. 

Tolerably common ; resident along Fox 
River. 

Set of 5 eggs. 

Dr. A, C, Murchiso7i, No. 16. 

Resident, but more common in winter. 

Tolerably common. 



Nests -common in suitable places. 

Uses an old crow's nest, preferably one 
in a pine tree, but sometimes in a hedge, 
" Osage Orange," or in the woods in an oak. 

The condition of the nest is not material 
if it will hold the eggs. 

Nests found on 3-1 1-89, 3-22-89, 2 nests ; 
3-25-89, 4-?-90» 4-10-92, 4-30-92, 2d set 
from same birds ; 3d set was laid in 3 weeks 
after, 5-28-92, 6-20-92 ; 2d set from same 
birds. 

Sets are : 1-8, 1-7, 1-7, 1-7, 1-7, 1-4, 
1-5, 1-5, 1-5, 1-5, for the dates given above. 

I am undecided as to whether the aver- 
age set is 5 or 7. In 1889 I found sets of 
7, but in 1892 all were of 5. The color, as 
in all owl eggs, is white, and except for dirt 
does not change during incubation. 

A set of eight measures 1.62 x 1.25, 1.64 
X 1.28, 1.63 X 1.30, 1.58 X 1.34, 1.61 X 1.28, 
1.62x1.28, 1.60 X 1.29, 1.56x1.29; aver- 
age 1.61 X 1.29. 

Fifteen eggs taken in 1889 average 1.60 x 
1.28. 

Fifteen eggs taken in 1892 average 1.68 
X 1.29. 

From this I judge sets of 5 will average 
larger than sets of 7 or 8. 

The largest two eggs are 1.73 x 1.38 and 
1.75 X 1.3 1 ; the smallest 1.52 x 1.27. 

The period of incubation is about 4 weeks, 
but will vary, as some eggs in a nest will 
hatch in four weeks after the first was laid, 
while others will come at almost any time 
after 4 weeks. 

An egg is laid every other day, or a set of 
5 in 10 days. Incubation begins with the 
first egg laid. 

Only one brood is raised unless they are 
disturbed, and then I have known one bird 
to lay 3 sets of 7 eggs in one nest. 

R. M, Barnes, No. 25. 

Summer resident, but date of arrival and 
departure unknown. 

Nests sparingly; found only twice in 15 
years' work, and heard of once. 

One nest found in an old crow's nest in 



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ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. 18-No. 2 



a soft maple tree, in a small lagoon sur- 
rounded by plowed fields, about two hundred 
yards from river bottom proper. The other 
in a tall white pine tree in an old nursery. 

One was only about 500 feet of a farm- 
house. Height from ground, 45 to 55 feet. 

Found on May 7. 

Sets 5-5-5 ; not measured. 

R, J/. Frisbcy, No. 25. 

Resident, tolerably common. 

Nests in suitable localities. 

Nests found in a dense pine grove, near 
a farmhouse. 

Old nests of Cooper's Hawk are used in 
this grove. 

Average height from ground, 15 feet. 

Nests found : March 9, 1-5, fresh to badly 
incubated. 

March 20 (?), 1-7; incubation far ad- 
vanced. 

March 22, 1-5, far advanced. 

March 24 (?), 1-4, far advanced. 
Virginius Chase, No. 26. 

Has not found it. 

Dr. W. S. Strode, No. 33. 

Resident, tolerably common. 

Nests, commonly in thick, low timber, as 
pine, oak, saplings near a marsh or pond. 

Uses a deserted Crow's nest. 

Nests from last of March to middle of 
April. 

Sets 1-5, 1-5, and 6 young, one egg, 
fi\t young. 

Measurements not given. 

Has examined over 20 nests ; thinks none 
were made by owls. 

W, S, Coble igh. No. t^^. 

Summer resident, not common. 

Nests in Peoria and Fulton Counties. 

Prefers a low, damp woods and dense for- 
est. 

Usually nests in an old Crow's nest, one 
near the trunk of the tree and not very high. 

Nest the first of May or occasionally the 
last of April. 

Relines an old Crow's nest and lays 4 or 
5 eggs; average, 1.50x1.30. 



B, F, Bolt, No. 34. 
Rare resident. 

One nest found. 

W, R, Loucks, No. 34. 

Rare resident. 

Has record of 5 nests found by a friend. 

D, S. Me IX sell. No. 36. 

Resident, tolerably common. 

Nests in hollow trees; old Crow's and 
Hawk's nests. 

Eggs found April 3. Young birds found 
on June 21 ; 4 and 5. 

L, E, Baird, No. 95. 

Resident, tolerably common. 

One nest, in trunk of a decayed cotton - 
wood tree, in dense forest, near creek; 2 
young. 

Says it is a bold robber of hen roosts. 
(From this I think it may be the Great 
Horned Owl. — A. CM.) 

Charles Wells, No. 45. 

Finds it only in summer, common. 

Nests sparingly. 

Eggs taken from a roughly constnicted 
nest, 3 feet from ground. 

Measurements, 1.62 x 1.28. 

C. B, Vandercock, No. 77. 
Rare migratory species. 

Five seen on January 22, 1890, in a dense 
thicket of scnib oak near a creek. 

Has known of it in two other instances. 

Rev. J, C, Elliott, No. 88. 

Resident. 

Found along creeks where the timber is 
heaviest. 

Nesting habits not known. 

G. W, Rear den. No. 92. 

Finds it inhabiting creek bottoms. 

Nesting habits unknown. 

O, Widmann, Old Orchard, Mo. 

Has met with it from November to April. 

Has not found it in summer, but does 
not collect eggs. 

Philo Smith, St. Louis, Mo. 

Observations in No. 74. 

Resident, fairly common. 

Found in plum thickets or crab-apple trees. 



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Nests the last of Mkrch and early part of 
April. 

Use an old Crow's nest from 12 to 30 feet 
from ground. 

Average number of eggs, five, but six are 
not uncommon. 

Has collected about 20 sets, some of 
them in Fulton County. 

Eggs are same shape at both ends. 

C. P. Fore, Clark County, Mo. 

Resident, but not common. 

Nest found May 4, 1889; an old Crow's 
nest in a dense scrub oak thicket, 12 feet 
from ground. 

No addition except a few feathers from 
the breast of the owl. 

Set 1-5; 1.65x1.25; incubation well 
advanced. 

Burt is H, Wi hotly Davenport, Iowa. 

Resident, more abundant in winter than 
summer ; 20 or more make their homes in 
the evergreens in a cemetery. Breeds spar- 
ingly in rather open, second growth, oak- 
timber. 

Nests in deserted Crows' nests. 

April 12, 1890, 5 eggs, slightiy incubated. 

Birds observed in Cook County by Rob- 
ert Kennicott in 1853-55. (Trans. 111., 
State Agric. Soc), i Long-eared Owl. 
Common ; known to nest in Cook County. 

Catalogue of birds of 111., Robert Ridg- 
way. 

Bulletin of the 111. Museum of Nat. His., 
Vol. I. 

Ix)ng-eared Owl, resident, breeds. 

"O. & O.," Vol. 9. July and August, 
1884. 

Birds collected near St. Louis, Mo. No. 

73- 

yulius Hurter. 

I>ong-eared Owl, transient. 

Jan. 30, flock of 30 in one tree. 

" Birds of Northeastern III.," E. \V. Nel- 
son. 

Long-eared Owl. Not common, resident. 
Remains during the day in willow thickets 
and in similar situations. 



"Birds of Carroll County, Indiana," B. 
VV. Evennan. 

I>ong-eared Owl. Seemingly a rare win- 
ter visitor. I have specimens obtained Jan- 
uary 29, 1884, February 5, 1886, Januarj- 
14, 1888. 

We have received reports on this bird from 
a strip of country running from north to 
south across the entire State, but the eastern 
half from Cook County down is entirely va- 
cant except for the birds of Carroll County, 
Ind., which is across the line from Vermil- 
lion. 

Again on the west a strip is vacant along 
the Mississippi River, wider in the middle 
of the State than at the north and south. 

From the reports I get a variety of opin- 
ions, but conclude it is resident throughout 
the State except in the counties below the 
mouth of Illinois River, where it is a winter 
visitant and perhai)s a rare resident, as only 
one observer has found it in any numbers, 
Philo Smith, in Bond County, who reports 
over 20 nests. 

One reason this bird is not better known 
is that collectors do not know where to look 
for it. I think it can be found in almost 
any grove of pine trees, north of the southern 
third of the State, at some time of the year. 
I have often seen as many as a hundred in 
a grove of my father's, containing about 
5,000 "scotch pines," perhaps 20 feet high. 
They would occupy several trees close to- 
gether, but would sometimes be in several 
flocks, always returning in a short time to 
their roosting place when disturbed. 

The food of this Owl consists of Mi( e so 
far as I can discover. I have examined ver\' 
carefully the pellets found beneath their 
roosting places and have examined a nest 
containing young nearly every day while 
they remained in the nest, and neither in 
the pellets or nest did I find any traces of 
anything but Mice, two or three of which 
could always be found in the nest. 

The mice were the common or house 
mouse, the white-breasted and the short- 



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[Vol. 18-No. 2 



tailed variety found in meadows. Dr. Strode 
informed me that he had in April, 1 890, care- 
fully examined a nest of this Owl containing 
five young, and no signs of any food but 
field mire, and the pellets around the root 
of the tree were composed of the fur of this 
mouse {a reparius). From this I am posi- 
tive it does not make birds a part of its food, 
and from the fact that I have often seen it 
about young chickens and none were miss- 
ing, 1 can say it does not molest them. 

The voice of this Owl is somewhat like to 
the first " coo " of a dove, but has a distant 
sound. It is rarely heard. 

When its nest is disturbed, however, it has 
a peculiar call, hard to describe, as it can 
hardly be called cat-like. It is very noisy 
when its nest is disturbed, and some- 
times will, when it has young, return to the 
nest after being thrown from it. 

The nest seems to be usually an old Crow's 
not always in very good condition nor in any 
particular locality, though generally in a pine 
tree or dense scrub, but I have found them 
in a hedge with no trees near. In this part 
of the country a Crow is not at all particular 
as to where it nests, as I have on several 
occasions taken the eggs from the nest when 
it was so low I could reach it from the ground 
and have found them as near a dwelling- 
house as 50 yards. 

The number of eggs \aries from 5 to 7, 
with 5 the usual number. 

J. E. Dickinson reports 5 to 7. 

Philo Smith says 5 is the average, but 6 
is not uncommon. 

Dr. Strode reports set of seven, as does 
Frisbey, of Sparland. 

In 1889, I found only i set of 5, the rest 
were of 7 except the first set found, which was 
of 8, the largest set I have heard of so far. 

In 1892, however, I found 5 eggs in all 
the nests I examined. 

The eggs are laid every other day and 
incubation begins with the first t%% laid, and 
in a set of 5 eggs covers a period of about 40 
days from the laying of the first t%% until all 



are hatched, the first egg hatching in about 
30 days. 

The female sometimes remains on the 
nest for several weeks before the first t%^ is 
laid. 

Dickinson says the young remain in com- 
pany with their parents until the following 
spring. ^^^ 

Lewis Lindsey Dyche. 



AN AMKRICAN iAXIDKRMIST AND HIS WORK. A 

HOR NADAV OF THK WKST. 



As a well known taxidermist seated him- 
self in our office a short time since, on his 
return from a trip west, he said : "I have called 
on Dyche, and his work in simply wonder- 
ful. He's a good one." This was a confirma- 
tion of many reports of the same nature that 
have reached us from time to time. Mr. 
Dyche has for some time been connected 
with the Kansas University as curator, and 
through his personal efforts the university 
has a collection that ranks high, and of which 
they may well look upon with pride and sat- 
isfaction. 

A portion of the collection is now on ex- 
hibtion at the Columbian Kxj)6sition, and any 
of our readers who visit Chicago during the 
season should call on Mr Dyche at the Kan- 
sas building. Of the many flattering notices 
given by the press, the following, which ap- 
peared in the " Inter-Ocean," cannot fail to 
interest all : 

KANSAS' (JRANDSHOVV. PROFK.SSOR L. I,. DVCHK, 

OK THK SrAlE UNIVFRSI'I V, AND IHK 
WORK OF HIS OKNirS. 

Unloaded in front of the Kansas building 
on the C'olumbian Exposition grounds is one 
of the most remarkable exhibits that will be 
seen at the great fair. This is the natural 
history display made by the Kansas Univer- 
sity. It will be no unusual occurrence dur- 
ing the next six months to have some writer 
for the newspapers say that the greatest ex- 
hibit to be seen has just been shipped from 
some point, but the above expression that 



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the Kansas University exhibit is " one of the 
most remarkable "is used advisedly. 

This exhibit is the work of a man who is 
recognized by naturalists as being one of the 
best in the country, if not in the world, and 
his specialty is the larger mammals of North 
America. To this branch of the study of ani- 
mated nature Professor Lewis Lindsay Dyche 
has given many years of his life and he is yet 
a young man. Beginning when a boy, tramp- 
ing and hunting along the banks of the 
W'aukanissa River, in Kansas, he went 
through the university with an increased de- 
sire to study the habits and natures of animals. 

The exhibit which he has brought to the 
World's Fair is the result of ten years' work 
in the field collecting and fourteen months' 
work in the taxidermic shop with five assist- 
ants. The professor, who is curator of birds 
and mammals of the State University of 
Kansas, has devoted himself to making such 
an exhibit that the whole world will be com- 
pelled to acknowledge the superiority of the 
State of Kansas in this line. 

Numbers in the abstract give but little 
idea of a thing. There is something in the 
sound of hundreds and thousands that gives 
but a vague impression to the mind, and it 
is only when the reality is placed directly 
before a person that he fully realizes what is 
meant by numbers. When it is said that 
the Kansas mammal exhibit will be 100 
mounted animals it conveys no idea of what 
is to be seen there. A description of these 
hundred animals must of necessity be in- 
complete and far short of the picture that 
will be presented by a view that will be laid 
out on the floor of the north wing of the 
Kansas building. 

The north wing of the Kansas building is 
60 X 80 feet, with 19-foot walls. The light 
comes from a sloping roof of glass, while 
the front opens out into the main hall of the 
building. It is in this wing that will be 
placed one of the most artistic exhibits of 
the coming exposition. The professor is 
not satisfied with showing a lot of " stuffed " 



animals, but has outlined a plan by which 
he will at the same time give an instructive 
and pleasing history of the animals in an 
object lesson. To describe in detail the 
plan it must be understood that these hun- 
dred animals are in groups, each group 
showing an actual scene taken from life by 
the professor, as he saw it while on one of 
his many hunting expeditions. 

Beginning at the extreme southwest cor- 
ner of the wing the visitor will find one of 




1511 



MOOSK.* 



the grandest groups in the whole collection, 
This is a group of seven Moose. The 
herd is headed by an enormous Bull, who 
stands 9 feet 2 in. from the ground to the tip 
of his immense branching antlers. The 
leader of the herd stands on a slight emi- 
nence in a swamp and is looking off after 
some possible danger to his family. Near 
the Bull is an old Cow with twin Calves. 
I'he Cow is riding down a tree in order to 
give her Calves a chance to browse off the 
leaves. Back of the Cow are two 2 -year- 
old Moose browsing from a tree, while a 
3-year-old Bull is approaching from the 
opposite direction. The whole scene is set 
in a swamp true to nature, and made with 
logs and dead trees brought directly from 
the Lake of the Woods, where the animals 
were killed. 

Separating the group of Moose from a 
group of Caribou is a natural break in the 
topography of the land. The four Caribous 

♦Sketches from specimens on exhibition. 



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are standing on a snow-covered piece of 
ground, the herd headed by a fine Bull. 

On a little raise of ground off from the 
Caribou stands a herd of nine Deer. These 
are the Mule Deer of the Rockies, and the 
herd is headed by a magnificent Buck. This 
group is most artistically arranged, showing 
the animals in their natural positions as they 
are seen in the mountains. 

ROCKY MOUN'IAIN (JOA'JS. 

From the group of Mule Deer the ground 
rapidly rises until it goes to a craggy peak 
of mountains. On this is a group of the 
most remarkable animals of the North 
American continent. The Rocky Mountain 
Goat is here seen in his home. The peak 
is surmounted by an old shaggy " Billie," 
who stands guard on the top of the rocks 
while his family of six Ewes and younger 
Bucks are scattered in various positions over 
the crags. The scene is most life-like and 
gives a better idea of the habits of the 
mysterious animals than any work on nat- 
ural history that has ever been wTitten. 

Between this high crag and another of sim- 




GRIZZLV BEAR. 

ilar nature to the south, is a valley through 
which runs a stream of water that finds an 
oudet in a sink-hole near the centre of the 
wing. Up this valley, or canon, two Bear, 
immense grizzlies, are seen as if ready to de- 
vour anv who has sufficient temeritv to ven- 



ture into their domain. There is not much 
to a grizzly to make an exhibit out of, but 
these two Bears are such ferocious looking 
bnites that they attract attention at all times. 
On the promontory of rock before spoken 
of, to east of the canon where the Bears 
find their home, is a group of Rocky Mount- 
ain Sheep. These are the famous big hom 
which the early travelers of the ^V'est wrote 
so much about. This group of ten animals 
represents one of the finest collections in the 
whole world. The band is headed by an old 
ram that is a veritable monster in size and is 
perfect in color and shape. This leader stands 




ROCKY MOUNTAIN SHKEP 



RAM. 



in plain view on the topmost crag and over- 
looks space, ever on guard against danger. 
Below him, in various attitudes, are to be 
seen the others of the band, and they are 
found depicting the true positions of the ani- 
mals as they were seen by the professor in 
the Cascade Mountains, where he brought 
down numbers of them. 

Under the ledge of rocks at the bottom of 
the craggy mountain on which are the Shee]) 
is a mountain Lioness and her three very young 
Cubs. The little animals, which are no larger 
than half-grown kittens, are playing about 
their mother while the old one looks as con- 
tented as an old Cat that has been fed on a 
good pan of milk. 

Just below the Lioness and her young is 



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seen a group of Virginia Deer, five in number, 
which are feeding on the slope of the moun- 
tain. This group, like all others of the Deer 
kind, is headed by a lordly Buck, which seems 
to feel his superiority over all other animals. 

Coming around on the eastern end of the 
wing the visitor finds himself in front of one 
of the finest groups of animals in the whole 
collection, from an artistic point of view. 

This is a group of six Elk. The group is 
headed by a Bull that is said to be the finest 




L v^^ . j...tct:> 



ELK, OR VVAPnil liV\A,. 

ever taken from the mountains for the pur- 
pose of mounting. He stands ten feet and 
nine inches from the point of his toe to the 
tip of his antlers, and is not only the mon- 
arch of the Rockies, but a veritable World's 
Fair King. He leads a band that presents a 
picture of still life most wonderfully conceived 
and executed. 

Here the ground slopes off toward a bit of 
prairie land, and a group of Antelope, six in 
all, stand and lie in a spot, showing the pe- 
culiar characteristics of this most beautiful 
of the Deer kind- 

Crouched in the bunch grass near the Ante- 
lope are two Jack Rabbits, one squatting 
close to the ground, the other erect and alert, 
watching for its natural enemies. 



The last group along the wall is on the ex- 
treme southeast and is one that never fails to 
attract attention. It is a group of Buffalo, 
or the American Bison. An immense Bull, 
the largest ever mounted, not excepting the 
fampus Bull in the American Museum and 




AN'IKLOPK AND VOL Ml. 

that other in the National Museum, is the 
leader of this herd of five, and right royally 
does he carry off the palm of being the finest 
specimen ever shown anywhere in the world. 

The group is one of the most natural of the 
entire exhibit. 

The visitor has now gone from the swamp 
land of the Minnesota around by the moun- 
tains of British Columbia and Colorado to the 
prairie land of Western Kansas and Texas, 
and as he turns from the walls which he has 
been following he sees the prairie si)reading 
out toward the centre of the wing. Here he 
first sees a trio of immense Buffalo Wolves 
tearing at the decaying carcass of a Buffalo. 

The Wolves are true to life and are gnaw- 
ing at the carcass of a Buffalo that was found 
in the famous Pan Handle of Texas. This 
group is one of the interesting bits and for 
scientific accuracy is hard to beat. The ex- 
pression on the faces of the Wolves is such 
that it brings a shudder to the observer, who 
fully realizes that the terrible tales told of the 
ravages of these savage animals have never 
been overdrawn. Sitting and standing near 
the snarling Wolves is a group of Coyotes, 
eight of the little Wolves being congregated 
in a bunch. This group is enlivened by a 
spirited contest between three young Coyotes 
1 who are struggling over the carcass of a Jack 



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26 



ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. iS-No. 2 



Rabbit. One triumphantly runs off with the 
tail while the other two tear the body apart. 

Just in front of the band of Coyotes is a 
group of Wolverines, those " Indian devils '* 
that are the bane of the trappers of the 
West. These animals are the most vicious 
brutes in the whole collection. 

Directly in the front of the display are 
two immense Mountain Lions quarreling 
over the carcass of a Deer that has fallen 
prey to one of them. The other animal is 
approaching, with mouth open and ears 
flat, looking all the world like an immense 
Cat. The scene is one of the most realistic, 
and calls for many exclamations from the 
visitors. 

Just back, to the south of the fighting 
Lions, is a Lioness and her two half-grown 
Cubs. This group simply shows a part of 
the family life of the animal. North of the 
Lioness and her Cubs is a group of seven 
Foxes, of all the varieties, one of them being 
a Silver Fox, the skin alone of which is 
valued at 1 150. 

Near the Fox group are two Ocelots, those 
beautiful spotted Cats of the southern border, 
and near them are to be seen a group of 
Lynxes, arranged in positions that show vari- 
ous phases in the life of that animal. 

This sketch does not go into the detail of 
the work that has been expended to prepare 
this one of the most artistic and scientific 
exhibits on the ground. A day would be 
well spent here in the study of the animals 
and their habits. There is a group which is 
not in this exhibit, but which will attract 
more attention than any other group in the 
building. It is a pair of fighting Bull 
Moose. These immense animals are strug- 
gling hard for supremacy, and the details of 
the work done on the group makes it a 
masterpiece. This group is so large that it 
could not be placed in the wing with the 
other animals, for it would hide too much of 
the exhibit; so it is placed separate and 
stands out in the main building, where it 
can be viewed from all sides. 



In the Great Dismal Swamp. 



What ornithologist is there in this country 
who has notwonderec^to himself if there did 
not somewhere in the jungles of this vast peat 
bog still lurk that prince of Woodpeckers, the 
Ivory-bill? 

It had long been my desire to make an 
expedition into this lonely region and learn 
for myself if there were not still to be found 
in the vast wooded tracts specimens of the 
imperial principalis. 

So while collecting in the eastern part of 
the State last summer, I made it convenient to 
stop for a couple of weeks near the Dismal 
Swamp. From Sunsbury, Gates County, as 
a radiating point, I visited several of the 
neighboring swamps, but found no signs of 
the object of my search. On the morning of 
the last day in May, arrangements having 
been made, we were off for the big swamp. 
The Dismal Swamp I What intelligent per- 
son does not think with interest of these 
words, of which the poet Moore spoke in his 
" Lake of the Dismal Swamp." Of those wild 
morasses of which Harriet Beecher Stowe 
wrote in her wonderful " Tale of the Dismal 
Swamp," and whose very name implies that, 
of all other swamps, this one is the most 
lonely and desolate. Our course for six miles 
lay along a sandy road through the pine woods 
before the canal was reached, which runs 
eastward twelve miles into the very heart of 
the swamp. Arriving at the canal, our guns 
and provisions were at once transferred from 
the cart in which we had come, to our boat, 
which lay tied up under the bank. A few 
strokes of the paddle and we had left the pines 
and were passing under the overhanging 
bough of the oak and bay, whose limbs, span- 
ning the twenty-foot stream, formed a com- 
plete arch overhead. In the semi-darkne.ss of 
this almost subterranean canal we pushed on. 

In the prow of the boat sat Caston, with 
his rifle across his knees, ready to bring down 
the bear which he verily believed he should 
see before the first half mile should have been 



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February, 1S93.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



covered. On the centre seat was Cross, who, 
with his paddle, was aiding me to propel the 
boat. The oak and bay soon gave way to 
tall forests of juniper, cypress and gum. 

After passing for several hours through this 
primitive forest, we came suddenly upon a 
logging camp. 

Extending far back into the shades of the 
forest were corduroy roads, over which juni- 
per logs, cut into fivG foot blocks, are drawn 
by mules and afterwards rafted down to Nor- 
folk. Near the wharf lay two boats just 
loaded, each with its man at the prow ready 
to convey these sixty-five foot crafts to their 
destination, which feat they accomplished by 
pushing on either bank with their long poles. 
This industry has been kept up ever since the 
revolutionary war. Washington at one time 
owned a large part of the swamp, and had 
some of the canals dug which are in use now. 

Frequent unsuccessful attempts were made 
to penetrate the wilderness around us, but 
the ground was everywhere so soft that, after 
getting off the slight bank of the canal, we 
invariably sank up to our knees in the peat. 
Even in the firmer places the ground could 
be shaken for a radius of eight or ten feet by 
simply springing the foot. 

As we advanced still farther into the swamp 
small birds became more plentiful, although 
at no point was bird life abundant. 

Warblers and Thrushes flitted across the 
way in advance only to plunge into the oppo- 
site thicket. I'urtles tumbled off their fa\'orite 
logs, and, rarely, a water snake glided away 
on our near approach. I>ong stretches of 
reeds from ten to fifteen feet in height now 
came into view, and by climbing a juniper 
tree the eye swept away for miles over a vast 
expanse of reeds, broken only here and there 
by an isolated juniper or cypress. These 
reeds grew ver)- thick, and it seemed to us 
almost impossible for any animal to force a 
passage through them. Yet it is said that only 
a few years ago a man succeeded in passing 
clear through the swamp on foot, accom- 
panied by his dog. We camped at night 



upon some slightly elevated knoll, drawing 
the boat well up on shore and sleeping on the 
ground. 

Thus wrapped in our blankets, we lay listen- 
ing to the dreamy murmur of the mosquito 
and the clamorous love-cry of the ever present 
bull- frog ; while ever and anon borne upon 
the night breeze came the distant hooting of 
the Barred Owl. A little after noon on the 
second day off, being now in the last of a 
series of three canals, through the opening 
ahead we discovered Lake Drummon, and 
half an hour later our little boat was tossing 
about on the waves while we were endeavor- 
ing to make fast to a cypress tree. I^ke 
Drummon, situated as it is in the very heart 
of the swamp, has no sandy margin, but the 
waves, hurled by the wind, which here has a 
clear sweep of seven miles across the water, 
wash in among the cypress trunks far back 
into the interior. The lake as well as all the 
water in the swamp is dark red in color, being 
turned so by coming in contact with the roots 
of the juniper. 

While the others ate their dinner I took a 
plunge beneath the dusky waves and found 
the water to be about eight feet deep at the 
spot where we were. The swimming was ex- 
cellent. Two hours later we had left the 
" Dusky I^ake " and were passing down one 
of those canals which forms its outlet. The 
water in this stream has about a two mile 
current. Once again we landed, and this 
time found the ground firm enough to bear 
our weight. Back into the forest we pressed 
for several hundred yards, the limbs of the 
giant trees completely shut out the sunlight. 

Through this forest, whose shades were as 
dark, and whose ground was as treacherous 
as ever Livingston roamed over, here in the 
semi-darkness of the gloomy swamp, im- 
printed deep in the damp, black, earth were 
found tracks of Coon and Wildcat. Not even 
an insect broke the melancholy silence of this 
weird forest. 

The catacombs of Rome or the sepulchres 
of Egypt could not be more death like or 



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28 



ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. iS-No. 2 



silent Not a blade of grass underfoot, noth- 
ing but fallen and decaying trunks and limbs 
of trees. 

But alas the Capephilus principalis 
was never found, and my collection is still 
without a specimen of the Ivory-bill. With 
the exception of one green Heron,not a single 
aquatic bird was seen in the swamp. The 
reason for this I suppose to be from the fact 
that the water is everywhere deep, thus af- 
fording no good place for waders to feed. 
Two or three droves of Brown -headed Nut- 
hatch were noted on the pine bluffs and once 
a Carrion Crow wheeled into view. 

While a trip through the Dismal Swamp is 
well worth the trouble, yet as a point for col- 
lecting birds, other localities may be found 
which are both more desirable and profit- 
able. T> Gilbert Pearson, 

Guilford College, N.C. 

The Acadian Owl in Philadelphia 
County, Pa. 



On November 5, 1892, while walking 
along the edge of the woods which extend 
almost the entire length of the Wissahickon 
Creek, I came to a stream of water, the hills 
on either side of which formed a small val- 
ley. The bushes along the stream being 
very thick, made the place very dark. As 
I approached the edge of the bushes, I al- 
most trod upon a small Owl, which flew into 
the thicket. After searching around for the 
bird a short time, I disturbed it again. 
This time it flew into the woods, and after 
another search of fifteen or twenty minutes, 
I succeeded in finding it, perched on a limb 
of a tree about four feet from the ground. 

I thought I could capture it alive by get- 
ting back of the tree while my friend, H. R. 
Stetler, Jr., stood about fifteen feet in front 
to attract its attention. The owl could see 
a little better than I thought it could 
and as I did not want it to escape, the only 
thing to do was to shoot it. 

This is the first Saw-whet Owl I have ever 
taken in Philadelphia County, Pa., although 



there may be quite a number about, but on 
account of their habit of sleeping in hollow 
trees and dark dreary places during the day, 
they are seldom come across. 

J/. Z. C. Wilde, 
Camden, N. J. 

Are Spotted Eggs of the Native Gold- 
finches Common? 



Coues, in his " Key,*' speaking of the eggs 
of the American Goldfinch, says : " Normally 
unmarked." I had heard of no spotted eggs 
being taken, until April 18, 1891, when I 
took a set of three of the Arkansas Goldfinch, 
one of which was faintiy marked with cinna- 
mon around the larger end. May 3, 1892, 
I took another set of three, one of which has 
faint but numerous dots on the larger end 
and others scattered irregularly over the 
balance of the egg. The nest containing 
these eggs was placed about four feet from 
the ground in a sage bush and was substan- 
tially built, being composed of bits of sage 
stems and finely split grass neatly woven 
together and placed in an upright crotch of 
four prongs. 

April 27, 1 89 1, I discovered a new nest 
of the Arkansas Goldfinch placed on top of 
an old one in a sunflower bush. The top 
nest contained three eggs. May 23 I took 
one egg from a new nest of this species and 
seven days later I took seven more from the 
same nest. 

This bird nests abundantiy among the low 
foot hills, building its nests in poison oak, 
sunflower or other bushes, which grow in 
abundance along the canons wherever there 
is enough water to keep them alive. 

I would be pleased to hear through the 
" O. & O.*' from other collectors regarding 
spotted eggs of the Goldfinch. 

Harvey M, Hall. 

Riverside, Cal. 

[I never saw any. — J.P.N.] 

^•^ 

Any of our readers who are interested in 
a musical publication will do well to read 
our club rate with the " New York Musical 
Echo." 



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February, 1S93.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



29 





a 


d 


.■2 


<■ 


« 


636 


74 


637 


75 


63S 


76 


639 


77 


641 


79 


642 


Si 


645 


85 


6^6a 


86a 


64S 


88 


652 


93 


655 


95 


656 


96 


657 


97 


659 


S9 


661 


101 


663 


103 


666 


106 


667 


107 


671 


III 


673 


114 


674 


"5 


675 


116 


676 


117 


677 


119 


681 


122 


681a 


122a 


683 


123 


683a 


123a 


684 


124 


685 


125 


685^ 


125a 


686 


127 


687 


128 



Eggs of Warblers in Collection of Thomas H. Jackson, 
December i, 1S92. 



Names. 

Black and White Warbler, 1-4, 1-5 
Prothonotary Warbler, 2—4, 6-5, 4-6, i 
Swainson's Warbler, 1-3, 1-4 
Worm-eating Warbler, 6-4, 12-5, 2-6 
Blue- winged Warbler, 1-4, 1-5 
Golden-winged Warbler, 2-4, 4-5 
Nashville Warbler, 1-4, 1-5 
Lutescent Warbler, 1-4, 1-5 
Parula Warbler, 1-4, 4-5, 1-6 
Yellow Warbler, 2-4, 3-5 . 
Yellow-rump Warbler, 2-4 
Audubon's Warbler, 1-3, 1-4 
Magnolia Warbler, 4-4, 1-5 
Chestnut-sided Warbler, 2-4, 1-5 
Black-poll Warbler, 1-5 
Yellow-throated Warbler, 1-4 
Golden-cheeked Warbler, 1-4 
Black-throated Green Warbler, 2-4 
Pine Warbler, 1-4 
Prairie Warbler, 2-4, . 
Golden-crowned Thrush, 4-4, 6-5 
Small-billed Water Thrush, 1-4 
Large-billed Water Thrush, 1-4, 1-5 
Kentucky Warbler, 1-4, 1-5 
Maryland Yellow- throat, 4-4, 1-5 
Western Yellow-throat, 1-5 
Yellow- breasted Chat, 6-4, 2-5 
Long-tailed Chat, 2-5 
Hooded Warbler, 1-4, 1-5 
Wilson's Warbler, 1-4 
Pileolated Warbler, 1-4 
Canadian Warbler, 1-4 
American Redstart, 1-3, 4-4 



No. of 
Sets. 


Total No 
Eggs. 


2 


9 


r^ 


70 


2 
20 


7 
96 


2 


9 

28 


2 


9 


2 

6 


9 
30 


5 
2 


23 

S 


*> 


7 


5 


21 


3 


13 


I 


5 


I 


4 


I 
2 


4 
8 


I 
2 


4 

S 


10 


46 


I 


4 


2 


9 


2 


9 


5 


21 


I 

S 


5 
34 


2 


10 


2 


9 


1 


4 


I 


4 


I 


4 


5 


^9 



121 



550 



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30 



ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. i8-No. 2 



THE 

ORNITHOLOGISTjjPOOLOGIST 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF 

NATURAL HISTORY, 

ESPECIALLY DEVOTED TO THE STUDY OF 

BIRDS, 

THEIR NESTS AND EGGS, 

AND TO THE 

INTERESTS OF NATURALISTS. 

Under the Editorial Management of 
FRANK B. WEBSTER, . . Hyde Park, Mass. 

J. PARKER NORRIS, . PhUadelphia, Pa. 

PUBUSHED AT THE 

MUSEUM AND NATURALISTS' SUPPLY DEPOT 

OF THE 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY, 

INCORPORATED, 

HYDE PARK, MASS. 



The O. & O. is mailed each issue to every paid subscriber. 
If you fail to receive it, notify us. 



Ovcrofficious — or ? 



It appears that in the eastern part of Maine 
there is a game warden who during the past 
season has been trying in his official capacity 
to interfere with the legitimate business of 
a taxidermist — and it is intimated in the 
interests of another taxidermist. Now the 
taxidermist business is demanded by and 
to a large extent supported by sportsmen. 
The game warden is the servant of the sports- 
man, and his business is to look to the pro- 
tection of game, not to monkey with taxid- 
ermists. We have on previous occasions 
seen the antics of some very "cheap fellows '* 
and they have been sat down upon. It is 
a settled fact that sportsmen do not coun- 
tenance nonsense ; and if the case we refer to 
is such, it will received proper attention from 
the fraternity if a protest is made. 

Cyclone Traps, the best and latest, just the 
thing for those who are collecting small 
mammals. Sent by mail, post paid, 2 for 25 
cents, or i dozen for $1.25. 

On January 26 a large flock of Snow Bunt- 
ings were seen by R. H. Carr at Brockton, 
Mass. 



Brief Notes, Correspondence, and 
Clippings. 



The largest Tarpon reported in season of 
1892 at Fort Myers, Florida, was taken May 
3, by Col. B. H. Young. It measured 7 feet 
and weighed 184 pounds. The smallest by 
William Ellison, March 13, length 4 feet 5 
inches, weight 58 pounds. 

John Wallace, the well-known taxidermist 
of New York city, died January 17. Mr. 
Wallace was a pioneer in the ranks. 

We are having so many letters from our 
correspondents describing the Pine Gros- 
beaks, and asking what they are, that we have 
not space to publish them. At this season 
we advise you all to refer to your Coues key, 
and study up the bird. 

E. J. Brown reports that the Great North- 
em Shrike has been common at Wj^shington 
during the winter. 

On December 25, 1890, a House Wren's 
nest containing three fresh eggs was found 
by a neighbor. Further proceedings was 
stopped on the day by a Cat. 

/. T. Park, 

Warner, Tenn. 

I noted two American Robins on January 
19. They were in an elm tree. 

R, II. Howe, Jr. 
Longwood, Mass. 

G. S. Miller, Jr., is overrun with mice. 
There are over 2000 on his premises. 

In October I found Newell mounting a 
Swainspn's Hawk killed here. Something 
new for so far east. I bought it of the 
owner. It is in nice plumage. Newell's 
shop is full of Deer, Caribou and Moose. 
Hope that he may do well. G, A. B, 

Calais, Maine. 

Those who intend visiting Florida, should 
read the advertisement of F. L. Small, who 
has for a long time been a contributor to the 
"O. & O." If there is any gunning in his 
locality, he will be the man to know it. 



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February, 1S93.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



31 



It reflects very little credit to a taxider- 
mist to take every opportunity to run down 
the work of his neighbors. We have before 
us a letter that certainly shows about as un- 
kind a disposition as can be imagined. 

We can assure the aggrieved party who 
sent it to us that such documents only injure 
those who write them. We would care noth- 
ing about it. 

C. M. Jones, Eastford, Conn., writes that 
birds have been very scarce in his locality 
this winter. He has observed a few Gros- 
•beak and one Goshawk. He asks if many 
northern birds have been reported. 

Captain Farrar, editor and manager of 
the "Sportsman and Tourist," died January 8, 
at Jamaica Plain, Mass., after a brief illness. 
We are unable to announce whether the pub- 
lication will be continued. 

We have heard of only a very few Snowy 
Owls. Pine Grosbeaks have been unusually 
plenty. Snow Buntings common as usual. 
Early in the season Barred Owls were re- 
ported. The weather has been so severe in 
the east that there has been but little shoot- 
ing. Ducks have been very scarce in the 
Boston market. 

On December 31, a neighbor shot a 
Meadow I^ark just north of the town. We 
have very few birds here this winter. Rab- 
bits and Minks have been more common 
than usual. 

About the middle of December a Screech 
Owl came down the fire-place of Lewis Pal- 
mer. He kept it in a cage, but it soon died. 
Harry Gillingham, 

Oak Park, 111. 

Roping Elk in the Rockies and the Wild 
Hog in Ix)uisiana, in February " Outing," 
catches the attention of naturalists and 
sportsmen. 

Which is the swiftest flyer among our 
birds? Who can answer? This question 
was asked in a previous issue, and the writer 
received no reply. 



We have received satisfactory returns from 

our ad. in your paper, and would be willing 

at any time to testify to the merits of your 

columns as an advertising medium. 

Shooting and Fishing Publishing Co, 

20 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 

And any reader who has subscribed for the 
publication, will find it a first-class one. 

I secured a Red Screech Owl ? , taken in 
the act of killing a full-grown Hen in its 
coop, at Sudbury, Mass., Januar\' 16. 

A. IV, Morse. 

Winter Residents of Milton, 
Wisconsin. 



1. Downy Woodpecker. 

2. Hairy Woodpecker. 

3. Great Northern Shrike. 

4. Blue Jay. 

5. Black-capped Chickadee. 

6. White-breasted Nuthatch. 

7. Mourning Dove. 

8. American Crow. 

9. Snowflake. 

10. American Robin. 

11. Slate-colored J unco. 

12. Swamp Sparrow. 

13. (jolden-crowned Kinglet 

14. American Goldfinch. 

15. English Sparrow. 

16. Little Screech Owl. 

Floyd Coon. 



A World's Fair Suggestion. 



Are we going to the World's Fair at Chi- 
cago? If so can we not have a headquarter 
in that city where we may meet? Let some 
of the Chicago readers of the " O. & O." 
suggest a place where we may leave our card 
stating our arrival and departure and where 
we may be found while in the city. No doubt 
there are many readers of this journal who are 
going to the fair and while there would be 
pleased to meet some of their bird friends. 

Let us hear from some one else. 

Albert La?ie. 

Madison, Minnesota. 



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BIRDS — Coues' Key 

Ridgway's Manual 

BUTTERFLIES— Maynard's (N.A.) 

Maynard's (New England) 

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Harris' Insects 

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JOHN BACHMAN— Memories of his Life 

MODERN RIFLES— Gould ... 

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Sent by mail postpaid, except those marked *. 



LAND. 

Horned ToinJNi. on cards 

Titruntulai on cnrd^ . , . . 

Stxjrjiionp* on tTHrJs ... 

Centipede!^, on cards 

Trap-dfxjf Spulcrii. 4hi cardK 

Trap-door Sf iderii» in tK*a*i Wnv 

hjnuU AHigutors . . 

Hull Frogjj . . , 

Rank* Sniikc^* Rallies 

Portuipjfjf Ciiiillb, Afrkiut 

Pnrtupinc QjdlUt AmtfHran — (doaien) 

l^ctigal Ti^er Chmn 

< irlzzlv Hear Clau'ji 

laijieClaws . . 



MARINE. 

Sen Beaver spines T Tiahatna . 
- it frchin Spincsi ! Massachuficlta 

a Beaver, no *phleH ; Bahamit 
bcH I'fthh**, Bar, blvachod: Buhiinta 
Sea L'rchhit large, roimd, bteiiched ; Balianij 
Sea Urehin, small, bleached^ Bab a ma 
Sea Urt^hin, smiiU, bkacbed j Turk's Island 
Se« Urchin, «mall, bkacKedj Kova Scoria 
Rock Kggs ; Bahama; fine 
Sond DoltarA- Bav ot" Fundi . 
Sea Hor^e ►.*.., 

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OOLOGIST. 

VOL. XVI 1 1. .-"^ No. 4. 




APRIL, 



CONTENTS. 



A- C\ Murchisoii 



Distribution i>f tlic Cooper** llavk in Illinois . 
Further Notes an thu Disiriliution of the Lon^-eared 

Ow! and Cooper's Hawk in Illinois . 
(^icef Occupant of a GoJdJinch's Nesit 
Diirtftbutroti of the I^obolinlt in IllinotK . 
A Criticism ...,.,,* 
Cold Weather Koics from Httfphentown. New York 
Some Holiday Trips .,..,. 
Ne*itin|^ of the Red-b roasted Nuthntch 
Among the Birdf> ot Norlhern Pernisvlvunia 
Davie's New York on Taxiderm v 

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ORNITHOLOGIST 

— AND — 

OOLOGIST. 



PUBLISHED BY THE FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY. 

ESTABUSHED MARCH, 1875. 



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Annum. 



Single Copy 
xo cents. 



Vol. XVIII. 



HYDE PARK, MASS., APRIL, 1893. 



No. 4. 



Distribution of Cooper's Hawk in 
Illinois. 



IV. E, Loucks, No. 34. 

Summer resident; has not found it in 
winter. Tolerably common. 

Nest usually in thick woods near a farm 
house ; built in an oak. 

Nest composed of small twigs, lined with 
a few pieces of hickory bark ; sometimes an 
old Crows' or Squirrels' nest is used. 

May 3, nest on an old Crows' nest, Hawks' ^ 
nest and Crows' nest nearly 4 feet in thick- 
ness, 25 feet from ground ; i egg. On May 
io> 3 eggs from same nest. 

May 23, same woods; same birds (?), 
1-4 ; incubation begun. 

Has not found more than 4 eggs, but 2 
sometimes constitutes a set. 

Has not found any marked eggs, but a set 
from Iowa is marked with reddish brown. 

Has found incubated eggs on April 28, 
but usually nests first half of May. 

Charles Wells, No. 45. 

Resident; common in summer. 

Breeds commonly, in early part of May. 
Nest 40 feet from ground. 

Eggs measure 1.98 x 1.58. 

Color, light greenish blue. 

C. B, Vandercook, No. 77. 

Summer visitant, (i specimen February 
23, 1891). 

Nests : sets on April 17, 1-3 ; May 3, 1-4 ; 
May 7, 1-4; May 11, 1-4; May 19, 1-3; 
May 17, 1-4 ; May 15, 1-5.. July 13, young 
hathced a few days from pair of May 1 1 . 

Nest in water oak plats where the trees 



are very thick and tall, placing the nest 
against the trunk of the tree from 20 to 80 
feet from ground. 

Nest made of small sticks, lined with bark 
and sometimes comhusks. 

Set usually 4, 3 and 5 being taken. 

Twenty- nine specimens average 1.88 x 
1.50. 

I^argest 2.50 x 1.56 ; smallest 1.80 x 1.42. 

Color, bluish white, some with spots and 
splashes of reddish brown. 

/. C. EllioL No. 88. 

Summer visitant. Tolerably common. 

Nests, but not commonly. 

Thinks it nests further north, as it is more 
common in the spring and fall. 

G. W, Readen, No. 92. 

Resident. Tolerably common. 

Z. E, Baird, No. 95. 

Resident. Common in summer. 

O. Widtnantiy Old Orchard, Mo. 

Summer visitant. Common in spring and 
fall. Comes and goes with the migratory 
birds. 

Philo Smithy St. Louis. No. 74. 

Resident. Fairly common. 

Nests in May, using old Crows' nests partly 
made over. 

Sets 4 and 5, usually 4. Two sets spotted 
with pale brown. 

C. P, Foir, Clark Co., Mo. 

Summer visitant ; not observed in winter. 

Not common. Nests in dense woods. 

May 14, 1-3 ; nest in white oak, 40 feet 
up ; composed of twigs, lined with coarse 
oak bark. Eggs fresh ; greenish white, one 
spotted with dark brown. 



Copyright, 1893, by Frank Blake Webster Company. 



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50 



ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. i8-No.4 



Burtis Wilson, Davenport, la. 

Summer visitor ; tolerably common. 

Arrives before April lo; leaves about 
October 20. Breeds sparingly in second 
growth timber, on either high or low ground. 
Fits up old Crows* nests in oaks 30 feet up. 

Nests : April 9, building ; May 7 it had 4 
fresh eggs ; built on an old Crows' nest, from 
which a set of Long- eared Owl had been 
taken. May 3, set 1-3, slightly incubated ; 
old Crows' nest, 50 feet up, in oak tree. 

Ridgway, " Natural History Survey of 
Illinois." 

Cooper's Hawk : " This bold marauder is 
a common resident in all wooded portions 
of the State." 

Kennicott, " Catalogue of Birds Ob- 
served in Cook County, Illinois," 1853-55. 

Cooper's Hawk : " Common ; follows the 
pigeons in their migration." 

H, Pratten. "Catalogue Birds of Illi- 
nois, Wayne and Edwards Counties," 1853-5. 

Cooper's Hawk :. Wayne, no remarks. 

Ridgway, " Catalogue of the Birds of 
Illinois." Bulletin of the Illinois Museum of 
Natural History, Vol. I. 

Cooper's Hawk: "Resident. Breeds* 
Commonly known as the Blue Chicken 
Hawk, Swift Hawk, Quail Hawk." 

E. \\\ Nelson. " Birds of North East- 
ern Illinois.*' Bulletin Essex Institute, Vol. 
VIII., December. 

Cooper's Hawk : " Common summer resi- 
dent. Arrives the last of April and departs 
the last of September or first of October." 

E, ^. Nelson, " Notes on Birds Ob- 
served in Southern Illinois, between July 1 7 
and September 4, 1875." Bulletin Essex 
Institute, Vol. IX., 1877. 

Cooper's Hawk : Rare. 

Cooper's Hawk is not mentioned in vicin- 
ity of Cairo, in notes taken there. 

" O, <& a," Vol. 9, July and August, 1884. 

"Birds collected near St. Louis," Julius 
Hurter. 

Cooper's Hawk : Transient, September 24, 
October 19. 



" O, <& O.," Vol. 8, March, 1883. 

"Cooper's Hawk," H. A. Kline, Polo, Ill- 
inois. 

Dates of nests : May 11, 1-4, fresh ; May 
15, 1-4, fresh ; May 15, 1-5, fresh ; May 17, 
1-5, 1-5, slightly incubated. 

B, W, Everman, "Birds of Carroll 
County, Ind." 

Cooper's Hawk : "A rare resident, espe- 
cially so in winter. Nest found May 10, 
1883." 

From the above reports I think we are 
safe in saying the Cooper's Hawk is a resi- 
dent of all parts of this State, but the major- 
ity go and come with the migratory birds. 

It nests in suitable localities quite com- 
monly, preferring dense patches of scrub and 
black oak, on low ground. The nest is a 
bulky affair of sticks, lined with bark, placed 
near the trunk of the tree ; dimensions, 1 8 
to 24 inches in diameter, 12 to 18 inches 
deep. Nesting begins in April and con- 
tinues through May. 

From 2 to 5 eggs constitute a set, with 3 
or 4 the most common. 

They are usually a blue or greenish white 
and unspotted, but become darker as incu- 
bation advances. 

Some sets or even one egg in a set may 
be blotched or spotted with reddish brown 
or drab, but many of the spots will prove to 
be blood stains, or tannin stains from the 
oak sticks in the nest, if analyzed. 

Measurements of eggs are from i .85 x 1.45 
to 2.15 X 1.57, with an average of about 1.95 

XI.55. 

Unfortunately no one seems to know the 
period of incubation. 

The food of this Hawk consists of mice 
and other small animals, reptiles, birds, poul- 
try, etc. It is perhaps the greatest enemy 
the Quail has. Dr. Strode has observed it 
chasing them in their coverts very frequent- 
ly and says it is becoming more common in 
winter, as they increase in numbers. 

It is the boldest of all the Hawks, coming 
into house yards after puDultry, and, when its 



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April, 1893.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



51 



prey has hidden, even lighting on the ground 
to hunt for it. A. C. Murchison, 



Further Notes on the Distribution of 
the Long-eared Owl and Cooper's 
Hawk in Illinois. 



B. T. Gault, No. 8. 

Transient. Have but one record for this 
locality, August 22, 1890; open grove in 
village. February 10, 1877, took one on 
outskirts of Chicago, in oak grove. 

Cooper's Hawk. 

Summer resident ; not common. 

Have never noticed them before April 15. 
Equally abundant as B. boreal is. 

Four or more pair nested in Glen Ellyn 
in spring of 1891, when 2 sets of eggs were 
taken, 1-2 and 2-4, both probably from same 
birds. 

Eggs of set I quite freely marked, chiefly 
at larger end, with spots of different shades 
of brown and lavender. 

Set 2, one egg spotted, another slightly 
marked with light brown, the remaining 2 
of the normal bluish-white color. 

Nests found in rather open, second growth 
timber, principally black oak, and in medi- 
um-sized trees, about 25 feet from ground, 
old Crows* nests being slightly remodeled for 
the occasion. Eggs in both instances de- 
posited on small pieces of bark, averaging i 
inch by 2 inches, probably from dead limb 
on same tree. 

Set 1-2 taken May 4, fresh ; while set 2-4, 
taken May 17, was somewhat advanced. 
Nests within a few rods of each other. 

A. C, Miirchison, 



N. Vickary, Lynn, Mass., reports that a 
I^abrador Gyrfalcon was shot at Ipswich, 
Mass., March 11, 1893 ; also that a Logger- 
headed Shrike was brought in to him March 
29, and a Mocking- IJird on April 4. The 
party who shot the Mocking- Bird re[)orte(l 
that there was a pair, but he failed to secure 
but the one. 



Queer Occupant of a Goldfinch's 
Nest. 



It was a bright winter morning, with the 
thermometer dallying among the small fig- 
ures, the fields white with their winter over- 
coats and silence almost unbroken, not even 
the chirp of a Snowbird to break the wintry 
quiet, but as I passed into the street and 
walked up the deserted road the depressing 
stillness of nature was suddenly broken by 
the lively chattering of a flock of Goldfinches 
which sprang up from the roadside at my 
approach, where they had been gathering a 
breakfast scant and dry from the tufts of 
grass and weeds whose tops extended above 
the snow banks that covered the ground. 
There is a cheeriness and life about the con- 
fused chattering of a flock of Goldfinches 
that gives a charm to the bleak landscape, 
though there is little in the note or the 
winter garb of the bird to remind one of the 
sweet song or the gaily painted songster that 
scattered the down from the thistle head 
last summer. 

With graceful evolutions and soft and 
gentle mingling of happy voices, the littie 
flock gathered in a tree top by the roadside, 
the very same tree where a pair of their 
number during the heats of last summer 
built themselves a nest and essayed to rear 
a family. It was a broad branching oak and 
one of its far-reaching arms extended quite 
over the carriage track, and there among the 
dense foliage they built the beautiful nest. 
Travellers in their wagons could easily have 
raised themselves up and looked into it, 
situated as it was in full view of every passer, 
but I doubt if any one beside myself ever 
observed the dark spot among the foliage. 

As the birds gathered in the top of the 
tree that winter's morning I saw in bold re- 
lief against the bleak landscape that little 
nest still securely held in its place, defying 
the storms and gales of winter and appear- 
ing as sound as when I first looked into it 
in the heats of last July. The Goldfinch 



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52 



ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. 18-N0.4 



builds a compact nest, soft, firm secure and 
substantial, and 1 havq observed them out- 
riding sometimes the rigors of even a second 
winter and reflecting credit on the marvel- 
lous ingenuity and skill of the architect. 

It recalls to my mind some curious cir- 
cumstances in the history of this nest, chiefly 
to note which this article was penned. About 
two weeks after I first observed it, apparently 
just about completed, I essayed to look into 
it one day in passing. Pulling the branch 
down till the nest was in easy reach I placed 
my hand on it, and to say I was startled but 
faintly expresses the feeling with which I let 
loose my grasp on the branch as a lively 
little animal sprang from the nest like a flash 
almost into my face and thence to the ground. 
One of those long- tailed mice that I some- 
times meet in the woods had ejected the 
rightful owner and appropriated to his own 
use the cosy little nest. This tree stood 
quite alone beside a much travelled highway, 
the branch on which the nest was built ex- 
tending nearly at right angles from the trunk, 
as before intimated, directly over the wagon 
track about twenty feet from it and about 
twelve feet above the roadway. 

It is the strange and unexpected that sur- 
prises us, and of all things to have found a 
mouse in such a situation seemed the very 
last thing in the last possible place. The 
mouse met a well deserved fate on ihe spot. 
The birds reared their brood in another ne.st 
in the top of a tall chestnut tree near at hand 
and the deserted nest still waves a conspic- 
uous object at the end of the naked branch 
over the street. John N, Clark, 

Saybrook, Conn. 



Andrew Downs, the veteran taxidermist of 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, died August 26, 1892, 
aged 81 years. He was born in New Jersey, 
removed to Halifax early in life, where he 
was apprentice to his father, William Downs, 
a plumber and tinsmith. He traveled ex- 
tensively in Europe and America. 

Harry Jordan White, 



Distribution of the Bobolink in 
Illinois. 



Since the publication of the list of con- 
tributors* names in the February number, 
four additional names are herein presented. 
It is desired to increase the number of con- 
tributors, and we trust that those in this and 
adjoining States who have not already re- 
sponded will do so soon. 

Contributors will greatly oblige by send- 
ing their reports in on time. If desired, the 
whole yearly report may be sent in at once. 

F. L. Charles, Cook County, No. 7. 

B. T. Gault, Du Page County, No. 8. 

C. F. Tindall, Morgan County, No. 54. 
E. S. Currier, Keokuk, Iowa. 
County No. 3. J. E. Dickinson. 

Very common summer resident. Arrives 
the first week in May; departs the latter 
part of September. 

County No. 3. F. A. Gregory. 

Summer resident; common breeder in 
meadows along the creeks. 

County No. 6. Gordon Schanck. 

Summer resident. Arrives latter part of 
April ; departs latter part of October. Breeds 
abundantly in clover fields from May 15 to 
June 15. Incubation lasts about two weeks; 
eggs 4-6 ; one brood. 

County No. 6. O. H. Swazey. 

Summer resident ; very abundant ; breeds 
in meadows; arrives the middle of May; 
departs the latter part of the summer. 

Counties 6 and 7. W. E. Pratt. ^ 

" Abundant in Lake and Cook Counties, 
especially so on the broad prairies just west 
and south of Chicago, where hundreds of 
pairs breed. In Lake County there is a 
nest in nearly every large field. From the 
20th of May to the loth of June, fresh eggs 
may be found, and the nest complement 
varies from an exceptional instance of 3 to 
7, 5 and 6 being the usual number here." 
Has found 3 or 4 Cowbird's eggs in a nest 
of this bird. 

County No. 7. George B. Holmes. 



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Summer resident. Arrives about the first 
week in May ; departs in the latter half of 
August. Males precede females in spring 
migration by a few days. Breeds abundant- 
ly in June. Says they are occasionally im- 
posed on by the Cowbird. 

County No. 7. F. L. Charles. 

Common and familiar summer resident, 
from early May until into August. Breeds 
in open prairies last week in May or first in 
June. One brood raised ; eggs 4-7, average 
5. Feeds on wild strawberries. 

County No. 7. H. Gillingham. 

Summer resident ; breeds commonly. Ar- 
rives in large flocks. Has seen over fifty in 
one flock. Breeds latter part of May and 
first of June. Eggs 3-4-5-6 ; one brood. 

County No. 7. D. A. Young. 

Summer resident. Arrives the last of April ; 
departs during August Breeds commonly 
in fields and prairies from the last of May 
until July. Eggs 4-5. 

"Birds of Northeastern Illinois.*' E. W. 
Nelson. Counties 6 and 7. 

Abundant summer resident. Arrives the 
last of April and leaves the middle of August. 

County No. 8. B. T. Gault. 

Summer resident ; common breeder. Ar- 
rives first week in May ; departs latter part of 
September or first of October. Commences 
to asgume winter plumage the last of July. 

County No. 10. L. W. Nichols. 

Summer resident. Common breeder in 
swampy pastures among the bogs. Nests in 
June and July; eggs 4-5. Thinks only one 
brood raised. 

Davenport, Iowa, opposite No. 15. B. H. 
Wilson. 

Summer resident. Arrives May 6 to 10; 
departs last of August. Abundant in clover 
fields and breeds in the early half of June. 
Thinks one brood is raised. Eggs 4-5. 

County No. 16. Dr. A. C. Murchison. 

Transient; tolerably common. Arrives 
first week in May; has not observed it in 
the fall. Occurs in flocks of five to twenty 
individuals. Has not found it breeding. 



Has found them in County No. 1 7 in June ; 
thinks they were breeding, as singing males 
were observed. 

County No. 18. A. Hamfeldt. 

Summer resident. Not very abundant. 
Arrives early in May, generally the first week ; 
does not have date of departure. Nests in 
meadows. 

County No. 25. R. M. Barnes. 

Summer resident ; fairly common. Breeds 
in limited numbers in meadows containing 
red clover, from May 20th to June loth ; 
eggs 4-5 -7 ; one brood. 

County No. 26. V. Chase. 

Transient. Observed a flock of 50 to 75 
birds in the spring of 1892. A male was ob- 
served through June and July in a meadow ; 
undoubtedly had a nest. 

Keokuk, Iowa, opposite No. 31. E. S. 
Currier. 

Regards it as a regular but far from com- 
mon migrant, passing north the first two 
weeks in May. Has observed them as late 
as May 24th. [Probably the birds seen on 
the latter date remained through the sum- 
mer.— W. E. L.] 

Clark County, Mo., opposite No. 31. C. 
P. Foir. 

Regards it as a summer resident, but not 
common. Arrives early in May ; departs in 
the latter half of July. Has found no nests. 

County No. ^^. Dr. W. S. Strode. 

Transient and rare summer resident. Has 
increased in numbers within the last few 
years. Has not found it breeding, although 
observed in summer. Earliest date April 
10, 1889. 

County No. 33. W. S. Cobleigh. 

Transient and summer resident. The 
greater part of them pass north. Arrives 
by the loth of May. The summer residents 
move east instead of south in the fall with 
their young. 

County No. 34. B. F. Bolt. 

Transient; a few remain. Has been 
found breeding. Nests in meadows, diffi- 
cult to find. 



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County No. 34. W. K. Ix)ucks. 

Transient and summer resident. They 
pass through this vicinity about the latter 
part of April or first week in May. Have no 
record of fall migration, or dei)arture. I'his 
bird is a rare summer resident and breeds 
in clover fields. 

County No. 36. D. Meixsell. 

Summer resident. Arrives about the first 
week in May. Majority pass northward, mi- 
grating at night. Flocks of 10 to 20. 

County No. 40. G. C. Pearson. 

Summer resident from May to September. 
Eggs 5-7. 

County No. 45. Charles Wells. 

Rarely seen. Observed a flock May 3, 
1892. [Undoubtedly transient. — W. E. L.] 

County No. 54. C. F. Tindall. 

Observed flocks in this county early in 
the spring. [Undoubtedly transient. — W. 
E. L.] 

List of birds collected in the neighbor- 
hood of St. Ix)uis, Madison County. No. 73. 
Julius Hurter. 

Transient, May 2d to loth. 

County No. 74. Philo Smith, Jr. 

Seen in migrations sparingly. 

County No. 75. W. L. Jones. 

Transient only. 

Vicinity of St. Ix)uis, County No. 75. O. 
Widmann. 

Regular transient. Migration extends over 
three weeks, from April 28th to May 19th. 
Experience with fall migration limited to 
one record, September 14, 1892 ; a large 
flock of moulting birds in the bottoms. 

County No. 77. C. B. Vandercook. 

Transient. Passes north in small numbers 
the first and second week in May. Has 
not observed it in the fall. Known as the 
Skunk Blackbird, Ricebird, Reedbird, Rice 
Bunting and Meadow Wink. 

Catalogue of the Birds of Illinois. H. 
Pratten, Trans. Agri. Soc. 1853-54. (Wayne 
and Edwards Counties, No. S2 and 83.) 
Mentions the lk)bolink in this list. Found 
as a migrant probably. 



County No. 88. Rev. J. C. Elliot. 

I'ransient, passing in May. Has not seen 
them in the fall migration. 

County No. 95. Prof. L. E. Baird. 

Transient. Known as the Army Bird and 
Skunk Blackbird. 

When one glances over the preceding 
reports and sums up the distribution of the 
Bobolink, it is not difficult to see the posi- 
tion this bird holds in the State. It is not a 
bird of general distribution, as will be seen 
by an examination of the reports. 

It is plainly seen to be a common sum- 
mer resident in the northern extremity of 
the State. Advancing southward, we find it 
still a summer resident, although decreasing 
in numbers as we proceed, as far as counties 
3i> 33f 3^ ^^^ 40. Reports from the first 
three show that it is a rare summer resident, 
but the report from No. 40 does not desig- 
nate whether rare or common. Here we 
can undoubtedly draw the southern limit to 
the breeding of this bird, as it is not re- 
ported from any point south of the above 
numbered counties. 

From counties 73, 74, 75, 77, 88 and 
95,*rei)orts show that the Bobolink is only 
transient. Pratten, many years ago, men- 
tions the Bobolink in his list of birds, 
counties 81 and Sz, but says nothing as to 
whether transient or summer resident, but 
undoubtedly it was the former. In counties 
45 and 54, it is evidently transient, although 
in No. 36, direcdy north of No. 45, it is a 
rare summer resident. From Keokuk, Iowa, 
and Clark County, Mo., opposite No. 31, 
we find it reported a migrant, Mr. Fore 
considering it also a rare summer resident 
in Clark County, but Mr. Currier, although 
his latest date is May 24th, regards it as 
only transient. North of this the reader 
(an trace for himself the occurrence of this 
bird, and its increasing abundance as he 
proceeds north. In the counties around 
and in close proximity to I.ake Michigan, 
the Bobolink seems to reach the height of 
abundance. 



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As previously remarked, the southern 
limit of this bird as a summer resident is 
the central part of the State. Here it is 
found in such limited numbers in the breed- 
ing season that it is seldom observed. 

The Bobolink is transient throughout 
the State,« as many do not remain in the 
northern counties, but pass further north. 
From the material in hand, I cannot say 
exactly at what date this bird enters the 
southern extreme of the State in the spring. 
We find it passing through 75 and 77 in the 
last few days in April and first and second 
week in May, but by comparing the arrivals 
in the south with those in the north, very 
little, if any, difference in the time is found. 
Reports from counties 3, 6 and 7 show that 
the Bobolink arrives the last of April or first 
week in May. From this it appears that the 
bird must travel quite rapidly through the 
southern half of the State. The period of 
the spring migration in Illinois lasts for 
about three weeks, viz., last week in April 
and first two in May. Of course there are 
exceptional cases of early and tardy arrivals ; 
note the early date in county No. 33, April 
loth. Mr. O. Widmann sends such an in- 
teresting report on the movements of this 
bird in the spring, that I take the liberty to 
quote : 

" The Bobolink, a transient visitant with 
us, is one of the most interesting species for 
the study of spring migration, for the follow- 
ing reasons : 

"It is regular in its migration as a bird 
can be ; it is a very conspicuous bird, can- 
not be overlooked ; it cannot easily be con- 
founded with anything else ; males, females, 
old and young birds are distinguishable. 
In the neighborhood of St. Louis, its north- 
ward migration extends over three weeks, 
from April 28 to May 19, earlier and later 
dates are rare. The time of their regular 
transit may be divided into three periods : 

" First period from their appearance in the 
last days of April to the fifth of May ; highly 
dressed males, singly or in small parties, 



always singing, generaDy seen on wing going 
north at all hours of the morning. 

" Second period from May 5 to 12; nu- 
merous troops of 20 to 4^ males, some not 
in full dress yet, and first females, compos- 
ing 10 to 25 per cent of the troops. Mostly 
seen on wing, but also feeding on ground or 
concerting in treetops. 

"Third period; females predominate, 
sometimes 90 per cent of a flock; troops 
of immature males and, toward the end of 
migration, young females with obviously plain 
head markings. The troops of this period 
stay sometimes all day at one place, are less 
noisy and more on the ground feeding. 

"My experience with this species in the 
fall migration is limited to one record, Sep- 
tember 14, 1882, a large flock of moulting 
(blotched) birds on trees in swamp in the 
bottomland. I do not mean to say that 
they do not pass through these bottomlands 
regularly every year ; possibly they do, and 
probably they do so without staying long at 
one place, but my visits to these places were 
too unfrequent and irregular. All I know is 
that they do not pass over the same grounds 
which they visit in the spring." 

Mr. George B. Holmes also reports that 
the males precede the females. 

In the spring migration, the Bobolinks 
move in small flocks of ten to thirty individ- 
uals each, pausing here and there to feed 
and rest, and the males making the mea- 
dows ring with the renowned Bobolink song. 

Of the fall migration, data is so meagre 
that I am not warranted in advancing any 
statements or forming any definite conclu- 
sions. The majority of the reports contain 
nothing on the fall movements of this bird. 
This is not surprising, for the reason that 
many of the contributors probably do not 
recognize the bird in its dull winter plu- 
mage. Mr^ B. T. Gault, of county No. 8, 
reports that the Bobolink commences to as- 
sume its winter plumage in the last of July. 
Mr. Widmann's only fall record was made 
on a large flock of moulting birds. 



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The dates given in the reports on the fall 
migration are so varied and incomplete that 
it is difficult to trace any regular movements 
in their southwaVd journey. It is reported 
from county No. 6 that the bird remains into 
October ; county No. 3, departs latter half 
of September ; county No. 7, latter part of 
August, and in county No. 3 1 we find record 
of its departure in the latter half of July. It 
therefore appears that the departure of this 
bird in No. 3 1 is earlier than in the extreme 
northeastern county, No 6, whereas it should 
be vice versa. Undoubtedly the food sup- 
ply has considerable to do with the move- 
ments of this bird as it has with others. The 
irregularity in the dates of the different lo- 
calities is probably due to this. In some of 
the counties the food supply may become 
exhausted, and in consequence thereof the 
birds are compelled to change their feeding 
grounds quite early in the summer, or they 
may move to some resort to congregate with 
other restless flocks, eager for their south- 
ern departure. Mr. Cobleigh presents a fact 
which might to a certain degree help sub- 
stantiate the above. He reports that, after 
the young are strong enough to accompany 
their parents, the Bobolinks move east in- 
stead of south in the fall. It is with regret 
that I am unable to take up the subject of 
fall migration further, but owing to the 
meagreness of the data in hand, it would 
seem impracticable if not impossible to 
proceed. 

The substance of the preceding reports 
can be summed up in a very few words : 
The Bobolink is transient throughout the 
State; summer resident in the northern 
half ; abundant in the northern quarter. 

JV. E. Loucks. 
Peoria, 111. 

C. W. Boles, Ponkapog, Mass., while hunt- 
ing Ducks, shot a fine Otter over his decoys. 
It was the finest specimen that we ever saw, 
measuring 52 inches and weighing 24 
pounds. 



A Criticism. 



Matter appeared in your issue of Feb- 
ruary last which has prompted me to offer 
a protest. I trust you will not deny me 
space in your columns to enter my objec- 
tions, as I assure you that the following 
remarks are in no way intended as an as- 
persion toward any writer or other person, 
but rather as a means of protection for the 
readers of the "O. & O." from future in- 
flictions of this nature. The first article 
referred to, on page 22, setting forth the 
valuable work of L. L. Dyche at the coming 
" World's Fair," is excellent in scope, and 
fully convincing as to Mr. Dyche's ability 
as a workman in his chosen province. How- 
ever,, in the selected matter heralding Mr. 
D's powers as a taxidermist, you fail to 
record the fact that he had unlimited ter- 
ritory from which to select his specimens, 
and leave one to infer that the collection in 
consideration is from Kansas. 

On your front page you advertise Kan- 
sas*s grand show, and in the article men- 
tioned embrace the Moose, Caribou, Grizzly 
Bear, Rocky-mountain Sheep, Elk, Wol- 
verine and Ocelot. The article is, there- 
fore, certainly very misleading, for, if I know 
anything of the range of these mammals, 
none of them are found in the State 
giving this exhibition.* Kansas is justly en- 
titled to Coyotes, Foxes, Bisons, Jack Rab- 
bits, Antelopes, Lizards, Prairie Dogs anp 
Burrowing Owls; but I cannot understand 
why she wants to encroach upon the Mon- 
tana Big-horn, Maine Moose; or why she 
will adopt the other incongruous and surpris- 
ing species. A group of Horned- toads (so- 
called), with a cluster of Burrowing Owls, 
Rattlers and Prairie Dogs, living in the har- 
mony represented by our childhood's geog- 
raphy, would be much more consistent, and 
also more comprehensive, than this conglo- 
meration of aliens on Kansas' prairies. 

* The Elk is, perhaps, an exception, but certainly six or 
seven species are here wrongfully accredited to Kansas. 



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The " World's Fair ** is to be a wonder- 
ful show, and we should all be very proud 
of it. And we are proud of it. However, 
we should, individually and collectively, try 
lo support it by uprightness, and an earnest 
desire to have nothing misleading. The 
present tendency is to overdo matters and 
to assume preposterously. As an instance I 
may cite one of two cases which personally 
came to my notice. 

The commissioners of a neighboring State, 
who were intent on making a great exhibit 
from their section, undertook to give a 
representation of the fish-eating animals of 
that State. Finding themselves short of 
material, I was requested to supply certain 
birds, and furnished them twenty-seven 
species of fish-eating birds from my locality. 
These birds are to be exhibited as represen- 
tatives of that State, although they came from 
Michigan. 

Another matter worth criticising is the 
article or tabulated notes on page 29. I 
have no ill feeling toward the writer of page 
29, but I feel sure that I am voicing the 
sentiments of the large majority of the 
readers of the " O. & O." in saying that we 
have had altogether too many notes of this 
kind in the last few years. A simple list of 
eggs, giving the size of sets and the number 
of eggs in a collector's cabinet, sounds idle, 
vapid, and surely is emphatically nonsensi- 
cal. A reader cannot help but think that 
the writer is making a spread of his collec- 
tion without being able to add anything to 
the advantage of his studies. Scolopax. 



[The writer of the above criticism, " Scolo- 
pax," does a great injustice to Mr. Thomas 
H. Jackson, a list of whose Warblers' eggs 
was given on page 29 of the February Orni- 
thologist AND OoLOGiST. Mr. Jacksou did 
not compile the list in question, and the 
responsibility of having done so rests with 
me. 

I thought it would be interesting to the 
readers of this journal to have lists of por- 



tions of the celebrated oological collections 
in the United States, and the communica- 
tions that have been received from numerous 
subscribers convinces me that I was correct 
in the view I took of the matter. That 
" Scolopax " does not like them is unfortunate, 
but then every one does not think alike. 

He is entirely mistaken in assuming that 
the lists are published in any spirit of glori- 
fication, for besides being interesting to 
many readers they serve a useful purpose, in 
that they show the average number of eggs 
laid by a bird ; this average being derived 
from the comparison of the numbers in each 
set. — J. P. N.] 



J. W. Jackson, Belchertown, Mass., re- 
ceived on April 13 a Great Blue Heron and 
Loon, on April 8 a Common Tern. He 
states that two Otters were taken during the 
winter. 



Cold Weather Notes from Stephen- 
town, New York. 



We had an abundance of cold, cloudy and 
vrindy weather during November, with num- 
erous squalls and flurries of snow, the rainfall 
for the month being very light. The pre- 
vailing weather throughout December was 
bright, crisp and cold ; no snow to speak cf 
in this locality. 

One belated Robin seen November 12, 
Tree Sparrows came on November 2, and 
abundant from date of arrival. 

Ivast Woodcock recorded November 2. 
Philohela minor in this locality is doomed 
to the same fate as the Ruffed Grouse — ex- 
termination — unless given better protection, 
or the number of market hunters reduced. 

Red-tailed Hawks noted every few days. 
I surprised a fine old male eating a late 
Thanksgiving dinner November 26 ; he was 
dining on a large plump chicken. 

First Snow Buntings December 5 ; a flock 
of about one hundred. 

I have looked in vain among the flocks of 



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Tree Sparrows for Junco hyemalis since 
November 12. 

Screech Owls are very abundant ; the bulk 
seen and reported are in the grey phase of 
plumage. 

Pine Grosbeaks are in abundance ; I have 
never recorded them here in such numbers 
before. First seen December 7, a single 
female feeding on a big white-ash; next 
record December 19 th, a flock of six, four fine 
red males and two females. Since December 
19, flocks of from eight to fifty noted daily. 
Grateful indeed I am for ample opportunity 
for observations on these beautiful birds; 
the first sound I hear as I step out into the 
frosty morning air is their pleasant notes, 
and I am sure to find flocks every morning 
feeding on the juice of crab-apple trees near 
the house, or over in the tangle along the 
river ; later they feed on the ash, maple and 
tamarack. 

Why may we not have the Morning 
Grosbeak ? Surely he is a bird of the morn- 
ing, with all the rosy tints of the eastern sky 
reproduced in his plumage. 

The closing week of December was par- 
ticularly cold, still and bright, from zero to 
seven below every morning, and the forests 
covered thick with hard frost which sparkles 
like milHons of diamonds in the morning 
sunlight. Bubo virginianus makes the 
most of the lovely moonlight and goes court- 
ing every night, and, judging from the notes 
which issue from the woods, his suit is 
received with favor. Behold a change as 
we cross the threshold of the new year ; a 
perfect downpour of rain during the after- 
noon and night of January ist, snow about 
all disappears, and the ice goes out of the 
creeks. 

A flock of four Ducks made us a flying 
New Year's call January 2 ; species not posi- 
tively determined, probably Red-breasted 
Mergansers It soon grows colder and to- 
day we are back at zero weather. 

Benjamin Hoag. 
January 4th, 1893. 



Some Holiday Trips. 



(Continued.) 

Our next find of any importance was a 
nest of the Hairy Woodpecker, also contain- 
ing young — four in number ; two were males 
and two females, the former showing the red 
on the head very plainly,* even at this early 
age. The nest was only 2 J4 feet from the 
ground, in a hole in a living oak. The 
growth in the immediate vicinity was very 
much stunted, the land being mainly pine 
barrens, sand lots and scrub oak tracts, and 
this may account for the fact of the nesting 
site being at such a low altitude, although it 
doesn't explain why the birds chose such a 
locality. 

We found two remarkable sets of Balti- 
more Oriole's eggs on this trip — one of two 
and the other of six^ in both of which incu- 
bation was advanced. It seemed a peculiar 
coincidence that we should secure our small- 
est and our largest set the same day within 

a few miles of each other. 

« « 

May 30, 1890, found me again tramping 
over the fields and woods about Lake Grove, 
this time with quite different experiences in 
some respects, but less luck on the whole 
than in 1889. 

The Mourning Dove, which we had found 
quite abundant the previous year, were only 
fairly so on this trip, but we found a long- 
looked for nest. It was about eight feet 
from the ground in the first crotch of a good- 
sized pine which stood on a well-wooded 
hillside. It was made of grasses and con- 
tained two fresh eggs. The bird left the 
nest and disappeared with great celerity. 

It seems a little strange that we have never 
found the nest of this bird before, for we 
have traversed the pines in this locality 
pretty thoroughly for a number of years, 
and the nest is said to be easy to find. I 
don't remember of ever having seen a Dove 
in the pines before ; they are very wild, and 
it is almost impossible to shoot them except 



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by remaining concealed near where they 
pass to and from their feeding grounds in 
the sandy lots and stubble fields. 

As I was getting over a hedge into a lane, 
an Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocaptllus, walked 
away in such a peculiar manner that I was 
led to suspect a nest, and on looking around 
a little, sure enough I saw the nest, which 
was quite conspicuous. A little cedar bush 
had been cut off about four inches from the 
ground and had commenced to sprout again ; 
at the foot of this the bird had made a slight 
hollow and built the nest, with the cedar 
bush for a "pillar." It was arched over 
very neatly and faced the south, being by all 
means the most artistically situated nest of any 
bird I ever saw. It was made of grasses and 
a little hair, but was so loosely put together 
that, on taking it up, it entirely lost its shape, 
and gave no idea of its original beauty. 

I will close these reminiscences with a 
short account of some of our nocturnal ad- 
ventures. My notes on the Whippoorwill 
say "exceedingly common." On the night 
of the 29th, during a walk of two miles, I 
must have heard as many as 25 individuals 
(I counted up to 15). I stayed in the- 
country four nights, during each of which 
the moon shone brightly (full on June 3) 
and the chorus of Whippoorwills was such 
as I have never heard, before or since, and 
to the ears of a city ornithologist it was pe- 
culiarly delightful. Just about 7.30 p.m. a 
single bird would open the concert, and 
almost at once their weird and melodious 
song would resound from every point of the 
compass ; the singing continued with more 
or less regularity till after 10 o'clock and 1 
cannot say how much longer. My host said 
he heard one at 3 a.m. The birds were 
quite tame, and by stepping cautiously we 
could approach within ten feet of the singer ; 
but, unless he sat on the fence, it was impos- 
sible to see him. They sang almost as fre- 
quendy from a stump or the bare ground as 
from the fence, but always in one of these 
three positions. The song is quite ventrilo- 



qual, sounding much nearer than it really is, 
and, as one approaches, it does not grow 
any louder, thus leading one to think that 
the bird is receding. I have been deceived 
in this way time and again and have even 
fired a charge of shot at the place from which 
1 was positive the sound proceeded, and 
where 1 thought I saw the bird, only to find 
that I had missed my aim by about three 
feet. The clucking note, preceding the 
song proper, was very noticeable. 

This wandering over the moonlit fields in 
pursuit of these ghost-like birds was a novel 
experience, and gave me a very " uncanny " 
feeling, manifested by chills up and down 
the back and the desire to don an extra 
coat 

While walking across a ploughed field 
about 9 o'clock we flushed a Vesper Spar- 
row from her nest under an overhanging fur- 
row; it was sunk deeper than I ever saw 
one before, and contained three eggs, while 
one cold and sandy one lay outside. 

The Nighthawk was not as common as 
the Whipp)oorwill ; very few were seen in 
the daytime and but few heard after dark ; 
the period when the most were seen was 
just before the Whippoorwills began to 
sing. Then they were seen flying and 
"booming" in every direction, the greatest 
number being seen on the night of the 30th, 
when as many as fifteen were flying over a 
space of five or ten acres. 

Arthur H, Howell. 
Brooklyn, N.Y. 

^%^m— 

They are having quite exciting times in 
Providence, R.I., and all about a Baby Ele- 
phant. It seems that one was taken to 
Roger Williams Park on approval. The high 
authority decided that the price was beyond 
the means of the Zoological funds, while all 
the youngsters of the city approved of the 
purchase. The press of the city took uj) 
the case, and opened its columns to the boys 
and girls. Penny subscriptions are the order 
of the day, and we predict that " Baby Roger" 
will remain. 



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6o 



ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. iS-No. 4 



Nesting of the Red-breasted 
Nuthatch. 



Of all the birds that enliven the woods, 
there is probably no family, with the excep- 
tion of the Warblers, more interesting to me 
than the Nuthatches. Although possessing 
neither the beautiful songs nor brilliant plu- 
mages of many of our woodland birds, they 
yet make up the deficiency in this respect 
by their great industry and evident cheer- 
fulness under all conditions. 

The species are few in number, yet the 
family is so widely distributed that there is 
probably hardly a locality that cannot count 
at least one species among its fauna. 

It was my good fortune to spend a part 
of the summer of 1890 in the town of Ossi- 
pee, beautifully situated among the hills of 
east central New Hampshire, a few miles 
east of the far-famed Winnepesaukee, so 
aptly named by the Indians " The Smile of 
the Great Spirit." There, in the forests of 
pine, spruce, and hemlock, the Red-breasted 
or Canada Nuthatch (Sttta canadensis) is 
a resident and a common breeder, and a 
good opportunity was afforded me to observe 
its nesting habits. 

Five nests were found in situations rang- 
ing from ten to thirty- three feet from the 
ground. The first evidences of their breed- 
ing were noticed .late in April, when I dis- 
covered a pair of birds engaged in excavat- 
ing a nest. This was at the greatest elevation 
of any found, and was situated near the top 
of a dead basswood stub, fortunately acces- 
sible by means of several smaller adjacent 
trees. The entrance was circular and none 
too large to admit the birds. The pair 
worked alternately, as is usually the case with 
birds that excavate a nest. When one had 
been working ten or fifteen minutes it would 
appear at the entrance and utter its notes, 
like the syllables cheaap, cheaap^ cheaap^ 
when immediately its mate would appear 
and take its turn at the work. 

I watched them from time to time, and on 



the 17th of May took the nest, containing 
seven fresh eggs. The cavity was about 
twelve inches deep and was excavated with 
considerable skill. 

Other nests containing eggs were found 
on the 2 2d, 28th, and 31st of May. They 
were all similar in construction to the first 
found, being rather slightly made of the fine 
inner bark of some tree, probably the bass- 
wood. In some of the nests a few feathers 
were intermixed with the other material. 
The eggs, which ranged from five to seven 
in number, were similar in size and color to 
those of the Black-capped Chickadees, but 
were more pointed than is usually the case 
with the eggs of that bird. 

In this connection it may be well to men- 
tion the discovery of a nest of these species 
in eastern Massachusetts. It was found on 
the 8th of June, 1887, near my home in 
Wilmington. It was in a pine stub near a 
dwelling; was composed of cottony sub- 
stances evidendy picked up near the house, 
and contained at this date young about half- 
grown. The birds had been very abundant 
during the preceding winter, and many had 
lingered until late in April, but these were 
the only birds that I observed during the 
summer. Edward A. Preble, 

Dep't Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 

— ^•^ 

Among the Birds of Northern Penn- 
sylvania. 



The avifauna of few parts of this State is 
so little known as that of the north-central 
counties. Doubtless much that is new and 
interesting might be learned concerning the 
distribution of our birds, by a careful study 
of this part of the State. 

The writer had the pleasure of spending 
a week in Potter County in the northern part 
of the State in the latter part of June, 187 1 ; 
ob^ct was to visit friends at Elmer, about 
nine miles from the New York line. No 
preparation was made for studying the bird- 
life of the vicinity; indeed, did not even 
have a gun, and so was unable to collect 



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April, 1893.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



61 



any specimens. But, in my rambles about 
the town, I noted several differences between 
the summer birds of Potter County and those 
of my native Mercer County, which may not 
be entirely devoid of interest. 

Potter County is in the northern foot- 
hills of the Allegheny mountains, and rugged 
hills, with narrow valleys between, are the 
constant feature of the scenery. Lumbering 
is the principal business, and large saw-milk 
are scattered through the valleys. Some of 
the hills have been cleared and burned over, 
leaving little vegetation but plenty of charred 
logs and stumps; others are still covered 
with " the forest primeval.'* 

The burnt districts were almost destitute 
of bird-life, a young Crow which I caught 
and a family of Wrens being the only birds 
found. Was unable to determine certainly 
whether the Wretis were the common House 
Wren (^Troglodytes aedon) or Bewick's 
Wren {Tkryothorus bewickti), but think 
they were the latter. 

While following a trout brook through a 
ravine in the wooded part June 25 th, I was 
greatly surprised to see a female J unco fly 
up in front of me. It was the first time I 
had ever seen Junco hyemalis, except as a 
visitor from the north-land, brightening our 
winter with its cheerful chirp, and was de- 
lighted to meet it in its summer home. On 
June 27th I met with quite a number of 
Juncos, both male and female, this time 
among some bushes on the hillside in a place 
much like those frequented in winter. Evi- 
dently the young were out of the nest and 
were following the old ones, keeping to- 
gether as they do in winter. Did not hear 
them utter any note different from the ordi- 
nary "chipping song" heard in winter. 
Doubtless the season of song was over ; the 
rest of the summer would be spent in the 
more sensual pleasures of eating. The Junco 
was seen only on these^two days, but that 
was sufficient to convince me that it is a 
common breeder in Potter County. 

On the same day that I saw the family of 



Juncos (June 27), I was so fortunate as to 
meet another bird which I had hitherto 
known only as a migrant. While wandering 
along the wooded hillside, my ear caught 
the charming ditty of the Black- throated 
Blue Warbler (Dendroica ccerulescens) , 
Following the sound, I soon saw a splendid 
male, flitting about among the bushes, quite 
at home and as gay and as brilliant as dur- 
ing the spring migration. During my walk 
I observed a second male; both this one 
and the first one continued in song while I 
was within earshot. No females were seen ; 
doubtless they were on their nests near at 
hand. Other Warblers were seen, but, with- 
out a gun, it was impossible to identify them. 
Another family of Wrens were met with, 
evidently of the same species as those noted 
above. 

Another noticeable feature of the bird- 
life was the apparent absence of the Brown 
Thrasher {Harporkynchus rufus). Not 
one was seen during my entire stay, and "mine 
host," an intelligent lumberman, informed 
me that it did not occur. The absence was 
the more marked as the valley was full of 
localities apparently suited to its habits. 
Indeed, the whole Thrush family seemed 
but poorly represented. But a single Cat- 
bird ( Galeoscoptes carol in ensis) was ob- 
served, though they were said to be not 
uncommon. Robins seemed less common 
than in the older and more highly cultivated 
districts, while the other Thrushes were 
scarcely noticed at all. F. L. Homer. 

Meadville, Pa. 



The trouble with the Exposition managers 
at Chicago appears to have been that they 
didn't begin to msh things soon enough. 

Harry Austen, Halifax, Nova Scotia, has 
in his collection a Red-tailed Hawk in black 
plumage. 

(;. L. Kent, Belchertown, Mass., reports a 
Snowy Owl on March 2. 



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62 



ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. 18-N0.4 



THE 

ORNITHOLOGISVOOLOGIST 

A MONTHLY MACAZINB OP 

NATURAL HISTORY, 

ESPECIALLY DEVOTED TO THE STUDY OF 

BIRDS, 

THEIR NESTS AND EGGS, 

AND TO THE 

INTERESTS OF NATURALISTS. 

Under the Editorial Management of 
FRANK B. WEBSTER, . . . Hyde Park, Mau. 
J. PARKER NORRIS. . . . PhfladelphU, Pa, 



PUBLISHED AT THE 

MUSEUM AND NATURALISTS* SUPPLY DEPOT 

OP THE 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY, 

INCORPORATED, 

HYDE PARK, MASS. 



The O. & O. is mailed each issue to every paid subscriber. 
1 f you fail to receive it, notify us. 



DAVIE'S NEW WORK ON TAXIDERMY. 

Mr. Davie has still further increased the 
number of plates for his new work. He 
now anounces that there will be 90 full- 
page plates. We have just received proofs 
from several of the new ones. 

Plate VI. shows the styles of artificial eyes 
that are used, the sizes being in con- 
formity with those manufactured by Thomas 
Hurst. In connection he proposes to give 
a list of sizes and colors required by many 
varieties of Birds and Mammals. 

Plate XVI. is from Hawks, showing the 
methods of vrinding. 

Plates XL., XLL, XLII. are from speci- 
mens mounted by the author. 

Mr. Davie is determined to cover the 
whole ground, and the delay in publishing 
is due to his making the additions that were 
not contemplated at the beginning. The 
subscribers will be well repaid for waiting, 
and those who do not subscribe may wake 
up to find it too late to obtain a copy at 
the present price at which it is offered.* 

F. J. Carpenter, Mount Kesco, Me., re- 
ports the first Great Blue Heron on April 10. 

♦Subscriptions received by us at $5. 



WANTED -GOOD ROADS. 

We would call the attention of our readers 
in this State to the great importance of there 
being a permanent Highway Commission, 
and request you all to use your influence 
with your representatives in the General 
Court to secure the passage of the bill sub- 
mitted by the Massachusetts Highway Com- 
mission. A commission composed of men 
from the various parts of the State would 
command the confidence of the entire com- 
monwealth, and this would not be possible 
if but a single individual was appointed as 
State Engineer to do the work of a com- 
mission. 

The betterment of the highways is of im- 
portance to all, not only in this State but over 
the entire country. 



Brief Notes, Correspondence and 
Clippings. 



A photograph of Oliver Davie's new 
museum before us, shows a collection of 
birds that he has been procuring for the 
Ohio State Exhibit. The cases have been 
temporarily removed and the birds arranged 
on walls and floor in an easy off-hand man- 
ner. They are set off by some specimens 
of Mr. Davie's work, such as heads of Buf- 
falo, Moose, Deer, Peacock Screens, &c. 
We hope, when Mr. Davie gets fully settled 
down, to give our readers a description of 
his rooms and his private collection. 

Now is the time to look out for Dermestes. 
They are beginning operations, and the in- 
troduction of Cryst Alba into the cabinets 
is the proper course to take. 

Manly Hardy, Brewer, Me., writes that a 
neighbor has a live Troupial which has killed 
two cats that went to his cage by striking 
them with its bill. 

Ed Van Winkle, Van's Harbor, Mich., 
wishes to correspond with all who have made 
observation, in the Upper Peninsula of Mich- 
igan, in order to make a complete list of 



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April, 1893.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



63 



birds and mammals. We hope that he may 
have a hearty response. 

R. M. Barnes, Lacon, Illinois, has recently 
added 1600 eggs, collected by George Noble 
of Savannah, Ga., to his private collection. 

With the opening of the spring collecting 
birds* eggs will take a tumble in price. We 
fear that the day is coming when the collec- 
tors will not get enough to pay for their salt. 

J. T. Park, Warner, Tenn., asks if any 
reader can inform him if there is an instance 
on record where the eggs of the Cowbird 
have been found south of 35° or 36° in the 
Mississippi Valley ; or any of the nesting of 
the American Robin south of 35°. 

Carl Fritz- Henning received a Golden 
Eagle from Carroll, la., measuring 7 feet 
and weighing I2j4 pounds. 

Also a Bald Eagle from Montana, meas- 
uring 7 feet and weighing a little over 10 
pounds. 

It seems that the authorities at Central 
Park, New York, have been drifting into the 
practice of naming the Gorillas, Baboons and 
Hippopotamus after prominent members of 
Tammany. Since the November election 
there has been a grand kick, and now there 
will be no more Muldoons in the monkeys' 
cage. 

The latest article of interest to collectors 
is our new collecting tube, with extractor. 
It is nicely made, strong and durable. Their 
shooting qualities have been well tested. 
One charge of powder such as is used for a 
i2-gauge shell is sufficient for 6 charges for 
the tube. They shoot strong and close, and 
do not tear the specimen to pieces. It is 
an article that every collector who sees it 
will want. 

We have before us a photograph of a group 
of Flamingo, 7 in number, mounted by W. 
E. Balch, which we pronounce the finest 
piece of work, with Flamingo for the sub- 
ject, that we have seen. We would call the 
attention of all to the fact that the hen bird 



does not sit straddling the nest stiff-legged, 
as held to by quite a number, and in which 
we confess we never took much stock. In 
preparing the mounting Mr. Balch went so 
far as to obtain samples of the mud, clay, 
nest material and grass from the locality in 
which the birds were taken. This group is 
now the centre of attraction at the Fairbanks 
Museum. 

Charles I. Goodale, the well-known Boston 
taxidermist, died at Somerville on April 12. 
Coming to this country in the pioneer days 
of taxidermy, he associated himself with 
John Wallace, of New York. From there 
he came to Massachusetts, and entered the 
employ of Mr. Vickary, who established him 
in Boston, where he became the leading tax- 
idermist for several years, and his little shop 
on Sudbury Street was the rendezvous of the 
sporting fraternity. His work was character- 
istic of the style that was considered remark- 
able a few years since, and would be criti- 
cised as not being kept up with the improve- 
ment that has been made in the art of late. 
Few could cope with him in the amount of 
work that he could turn out, nor could any 
one say that he did not do all in his power 
to please his host of friends and patrons. 

To the Horned Lark. 



When February yields, 

From lanes and farrowed fields, 

Her billowy drifts of January snow, 

And softening south winds blow ; 

The Lark, with clear, exhilarating notes, — 

As, high in air, she sings, and singing floats 

On poised and fitful wings, — 

Her springtime message brings. 

In stubble fields, at rest. 

She builds her snow-girt nest. 

And, silent, broods her eggs, while March winds 

blow. 
Yet milder, softer grow. 
Then feeds her young, frail, clamorous, hungry 

things, 
Qiiaint emblems of the fruitage summer brings 
When showers of April rain 
Have kissed the growing grain. 

P, B. Ptabody. 

Owatonna, Minn. 



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ORNITHOLOGIST 

— AND — 

OOLOGIST. 

VOL. XVIII. 



No. 5. 




CONTENTS. 



Ale'xander Wilson 

DiKtribiiiioJi of the Mocking-bird in 111 
Mv Firht Dav ot Eg*^ Collectitiij 
Kesti Jig of the Brown PoHean 
Nest ot the ^hurp-shinncd Hiiv^k 
Lme Nesting of the BQb-\\ hite . 
A Home Among the Bird"* 
Brici Notes. Correspondence find Clfj>p 
American HViodetjck . + 

Breeding rhibit'> ot the Rubv*throat at 
York . . * " , 



Bnllston, Now 



Jij*;. M, Wade 
A. C. Murchijson 
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FirFt-cbsii Bird and ManMiia! Skins and Eggs. 
Also Reptiles, H.'itrathians, KTnhrv<is. ett\, in al- 
cohol. Full data in all ta>es, Wrlie rnr p rive-list. 



WANTED. 

AREMTNCiTUN CANE GUN, -^-Calibre. 
MuM bii hi good condition. 
I AUo wanted Vol* 1-2, O. k O. 

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1306 Chestnut Street, 
Philadelphia, Penn, 

WHAT g^P'^^ WILL DPI 

EvKTj ttraV and GfRL who (ovm 10 resitl >pkndid Sioriesj 
Sketches, juid iKauEiful Fivwnii should i^iiti^iribe for THE 
AMERICAN VOL NO FOLKS, a bcaiiiifttl llliistratcd 
Monthly Magazine. c^LiMi^hed in i&jt,. lis storieii tlk ilit 
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htvcnik r.iter.itore, iind evxr> i»siie i* ftHed with good thing*. 
I be iv^idar 5Lih>i.ripaon price i» $r.oo a ji-ar, but if you will 

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»nd 5rO«r name .'iiid ,iddrej«. we ^tl] send ynu ihi? niagaxin? 
ijix ^Eonthf (iti Irial AddrefK, 

AMERICAN XOVSG FOLKS, 

M VS-'LMI'-F.TTfR, N.H. 



JAMES P, BABBITT, 
Taxidermist, 

And dealer in Birds* S*tissi, Ekins, Stl'fped Bikns, and fiip 

piicfi lor the Nnhirnlui and laxidcttnist. 

Stfiid sismp br lisu 

la HnriflKS* AVFM F. TAT "N TAX, MA^S 



BIR0SEGGJ 
fillASS'EYES] 

Illustrated Catalogue for 2 4^s1^mp 






WILSON MSS. FOR SALE. 



I HA^'E ft large cunouiil of Mnjiiwcriirt, L^rawLug* at 
of Alex, Wilson » Audidftin, and otbiin, and a gac 



find works 
iiod many 
vaTuabk fewks* Pbiics, ^g,, with a large callectiuti r»i eggs; 
all p| which I will »]1 in a lump bt br f i.-^go- Real Ettqlc 
iceurity u ss good a* in(>Tie>'. 1 have no rime for idle i 
pondence. Moaey can be made cmt o( u 10 <!i%uk it up. 
Addieis^ 

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f.^:tllllnbln StrcH.4. Dr»rchestcr, \i^ 



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ORNITHOLOGIST 

— AISTD— 

OOLOGIST. 



PUBLISHED BY THE FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY. 

ESTABUSHBD MARCH, 1875. 



$z.oo per 
Annum. 



Single Copy 
xo cents. 



Vol. XVIII. 



HYDE PARK, MASS., MAY, 1893. 



No. 5. 



Alexander Wilson. 



"Alexander Wilson had genius, and not 
much of anything else. Very little learning, 
scarcely any money, not many friends, and 
a paltry share of the world's regard while he 
lived." 

I extract the above from the historical 
preface of Coues* "Key" in "Forest and 
Stream" for May 29, 1884, by R. W. Shu- 
feldt, M.D., U.S.A. I know it was written 
in a kindly spirit, but it is likely to carry an 
erroneous impression of Alexander Wilson 
to those who have never had the pleasure of 
reading all his works. To simply admit that 
Wilson had g^ius does not do him justice. 

Wilson was bom in 1766. At the age of 
thirteen he was apprenticed as a weaver, 
which at that time could be only about one 
remove from a pauper's life. I know this 
from a forty years* connection with the man- 
ufacture of woolen goods ; but if anything 
further is needed, we get it from the fol- 
lowing extract from his "Groans from the 
Loom " : — 

** To hang like a scarecrow in rags, 
And live o'er a seat-tree on naught. 
Good Gods ! shall a mortal with legs, 
So low, uncomplaining, be brought?** 

Although Wilson had a terrible dislike for 
weaving, he served faithfully for three years, 
or until August, 1782, when he wrote the 
following lines on his indentures : 

**Be*t kent to a* the warld in rhime 
That wi right meikle wark an* toil. 
For three lang years Tve sert my time, 
While's feasted wi the hazel oil." 



This is written in a much better hand than 
one would expect from the fact that he had 
had no opportunity for education. But then 
modem scholars hardly consider penmanship 
learning, and yet he was but sixteen v rs 
old. If he got any schooling, it could 
but a littie and of a very poor quality. After 
his apprenticeship was completed he served 
four years at the loom in various places, 
during which time he wrote all his earlier 
poems, which he published in 1790 in an 
octavo volume of 308 pages, when he was 
twenty-four years old. During the time that 
this work was in the publisher's hands Wilson 
made a peddling tour through the east of 
Scotland seeking subscriptions with a pros- 
pectus, and after the work was issued he 
peddled the book from door to door, only 
two hund red copies being issued with the 
dateflC J790, which he sold, one of which 
and a c6py of the 1791 edition are now be- 
fore me. His peddling excursions, which 
continued for three years, were not finan- 
cially successful, but the freedom of such a 
life was just what Wilson craved, and they 
were no doubt among the most interesting 
years of his life. Wilson had genius at 
twenty-four and was a wonderful student of 
human nature. He knew the short-comings 
of his fellow-men too well ; hence his love of 
solitude in after life. 

Let us skip back to 1790, when Wilson 
was but twenty-four years old. We find him 
selling from door to door the volume of his 
poems, 308 pages, 8vo., old style leather 
binding. This book he had written, pub- 
lished, and was peddling. He did not seek 



Copyright, 1893, by Frank Blakb Webstbr Company. 



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[Vol. 18-N0. s 



a publisher, but published it himself ; nor did 
he seek to sell it through dealers, but sold it 
himself. Yet he was but twenty-four and 
with " little learning." Where he ever got 
the money to do this will forever remain a 
mystery. At the time he was selling this 
book he was peddling dry goods, and even 
the renowned " Yankee peddler " of to-day 
has not improved on his method; and if 
any fair-minded man will read his diary dur- 
ing this peddling trip he will admit that he 
was a genius at twenty-four, and a thorough 
student of human nature. To know human 
nature too well is to drive one to live in the 
woods by daylight, and into the garret at 
dark to play " the flute " and be called " mel- 
ancholy.** We should like to copy the clos- 
ing paragraph in the introduction to Wilson's 
poems, edition of 1790, but space or time 
will not permit 

In 1794, or four years after the above 
mentioned volume was published, we find 
Wilson in America, with impatience his 
master as he left the ship at New Castle, 
Delaware, preferring to walk to Philadelphia. 
It was on this trip that he saw and shot his 
first Red- headed Woodpecker, which he 
admired so much. In due time he arrived 
in Philadelphia, in a strange land "with little 
money" and that borrowed. His travels 
and change from the life of a weaver at not 
over a dollar per day to that of a school- 
master for little, if any, more, and often much 
less, is well known to all ornithologists. 
From these scant earnings he often had 
money for " Duncan ** to help him buy his 
farm and support his family, and published 
his own matchless work beside. 

I have before me a letter written by Wil- 
son to his friend Bartram, dated August 16, 
1804 (unpublished). He had just seen for 
the first time a Pileated Woodpecker and 
had evidently never heard of one at that 
time, and yet in Vol. 4, 181 1, we find a rare 
illustration and a good description. Was it 
genius or learning that enabled him to ac 
complish this in so short a time ? If he had 



few friends and little money, how did he 
make out to go to Pittsburg by stage, then to 
buy a boat, which he named " The Ornithol- 
ogist,** and travel in this way several hun- 
dred miles ; then leaving the boat, buying a 
horse and travel through the then wilder- 
ness of Kentucky and other Southern States 
to New Orleans on horseback, often getting 
mired in the morasses, and yet taming and 
having as a companion an Illinois Paroquet? 
If one wants to know Wilson, he should read 
his visit to the grave of poor Lewis on this 
trip. How did he travel through the whole 
Atlantic seaboard on horseback; how did 
he make out to travel through the New Eng- 
land States into Vermont, New Hampshire 
and Maine? 

We have before us a letter dated Boston, 
October 12, 1808, written on common un- 
ruled letter paper. The first page, besides 
date and address, contains fifty-nine lines, 
second page 63 lines, third page 63 lines, 
with 18 lines on the outside page — used at 
that time to fold, as no envelopes were then 
used — making 203 lines of exceedingly fine 
penmanship, almost as distinct as print to- 
day, after the lapse of seventy-six years. In 
a commercial life this would be considered 
learning, but in a profession we fear it would 
not count. Wilson had few friends we admit ; 
but every friend he had was thoroughly honest, 
and his friendships only ended with life. If 
there is on record in the English language 
the superior or equal of Alexander Wilson as 
a friend, or as a man, we have never seen 
it When he was struggling to earn money 
to publish his work, and working almost 
night and day for a mere pittance, he divided 
that money with Duncan, and wrote with it 
the most cheering letter. Who but Wilson 
could do this? To benefit his fellow- men 
by dividing his last hard-earned dollar was 
no sacrifice to him. 

Every American historian should read 
Wilson's " Foresters,** not as a poem (poets 
do not walk from Philadelphia to Niagara 
Falls and back in the late fall), but for the 



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May, 1893.] 



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67 



interesting facts it contains. Only Bums 
could have crowded more facts into as few 
words, and even he could not have made it 
more interesting, as the following brief, ran- 
dom extracts will illustrate : — 

** A knapsack crammed by friendship's generous 

care, 
With cakes and cordials, drams and dainty fare." 

And writing of Bucks County, he says, — 

** For wheat, fair Quakers, eggs and fruit re- 
nowned." 

I have five editions of " The Foresters." 
There are several more that I have not 
yet been able to find. Four editions prove 
that it was appreciated. I think I have seven 
different " Lives of Alexander Wilson," and 
have not yet secured the one by Mrs. Bright- 
wood. In conclusion, let me advise all to 
read Alexander Wilson ; read all you can get 
of his writings, and, like the writer, you will 
thank God that he never studied Greek or 
Latin. His works will live and his style re- 
main popular with the millions when techni- 
cal works will only be sought by technical 
scholars and shunned by the general reader. 

The cause of all Wilson's troubles was 
"honesty." The world used him roughly 
for this, but he was not to blame, for he was 
bom so and could not help it He died in 
1 81 3. This planet of ours has given birth 
to millions of human beings, some of them 
very leamed, but Wilson's equal has not yet 
made his* appearance. Jos. M. Wade. 

P.S. — The above was written some nine 
years ago. It may interest some of the 
readers of " O. & O.," and that is the only 
excuse for not destroying it during those nine 
years. The writer has given but little atten- 
tion to bird life or omithologists. 



A very interesting article has recently 
appeared in the " Manchester Union," Man- 
chester, N. H., entitled "The Hawk Family," 
illustrated by eight cuts of a superior charac- 
ter. We would advise our readers to send 
for a copy. 



Distribution of the Mocking-bird in 
Illinois. 



y. E. Dickinson, No. 3. 

Has seen one specimen (about 1876 or 
1877) in full song; but does not think it 
occurs in a wild state. 

J^, A. Gregory. No. 3. 

Has never observed it. 
W. E. Pratt. No. 6. 

Does not mention it. 

B. T. Gault. No. 8. 

Mocking Bird. 

No record by me for this locality or north- 
eastem Illinois. 

L. W. Nichols. No. 10. 

Has never found it in this State. 

A. Hamfeldt. No. 18. 

Has not met it. 

Dr. A. C. Murchison. 

A very rare summer resident 

Have met only 3 specimens. One nest 
found in a hedge 6 feet from ground, 50 
yards from house; composed of strings, 
weeds, stalks, grass, etc.; 4 eggs hatched, 
but were taken by snake. Eight eggs (from 
Alabama), average .98 x .68 ; largest 1.04 x 
71; smallest .93X.6S. The color is light 
greenish blue, with dots and blotches of ms- 
set ; in 3 specimens the ground color is hard- 
ly visible. The only other specimen was a 
male in full song, shot the middle of May. 

R. M. Barnes. No. 25. 

Occurs as a very rare straggler. 

One observed in May, 189 1, a male in full 
song. 

Virginius Chase. No. 26, 

Has not met it. 

Dr. W. S. Strode. No. ^t,. 

Has not met it. 
W. E. Loucks. No. 34. 

Has not met it himself. 

D. S. Meixsell. No. 36. 

Rare summer visitant. 

Nests rarely ; 3 found. 

First. June 3, 1889, in hedge fence 3 feet 
from ground; made of small sticks, grass, 



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[Vol. 18-N0. 5 



stems, etc., lined with roots and grape-vine 
bark ; 3 half grown young. 

Second. A few days later, in scrub oak 5 
feet up, 4 young. 

Third. May 28, 1890, 8 feet up in a dog- 
wood tree ; 4 eggs, color, greyish blue, blotched 
with chestnut red or yellowish brown. 

Measure, .90 x. 71, .89 x .70, .90 x 72, .91 

X.73. 

Has observed the birds several times in 
hazel thickets last summer. 

G. C Pearson. No. 40. 

Was at one time common, but now only 
occasionally met with. 

Charles Wells. No. 45. 

Has not met it. 
W. L.Jones. No. 75. 

Resident Breeds in hedges, and pastiu-es 
where there are crab-apple trees. 

C. B. Vandercook. No. 77. 

Rare resident. Noted on October 16, 
1886 (i) ; April 21 (i) ; April 8, 1889 (i) ; 
October 11, 1889 (i) ; March 23, 1890 (i) ; 
December 9, 1890 (i) ; January 7, 1891 
(i) ; December 24, 1892 (i). Has exam- 
ined 8 nests, all placed in hedges or brush 
piles, made of twigs, fine grass, rabbit's or 
horse hair and hempen fibers. Size outside, 
4 inches deep ; diameter, 8 inches ; inside, 
3 inches deep, 3J4 inches diameter. 

Set, 3 or 4 eggs ; average size, .93 x .74 ; 
color, pale greenish, marked with large and 
small spots of chestnut. 

Set 1-3, April 28, 1892; set 1-4, May i, 
1892. 

Rev. J. C. Elliott. No. 88. 

Summer resident Not so common as 
formerly. Nests in osage orange hedges, 
sometimes in orchards. 

G. W. Rear den. No. 92. 

Resident. Tolerably common. 

Nests usually in haw trees, crab-apple trees, 
brush heaps, etc. Nests are usually one-half 
mile apart Build from 2 to 15 feet from 
ground. 

Nest about ist of May. 

Set, 3 to 5 ; average 3. Color, dirty gray- 



ish brown, profusely speckled with darker 
brown. 

One pair raised broods in his garden last 
year. 

O. Wtdmann, Old Orchard, Mo. 

Well known inhabitant Met with at all 
months of the year. Cannot stand severe 
winters. 

Arrives from middle of March to middle 
of May ; in some years full numbers do not 
arrive until June. The first song has been 
heard as early as February 1 7, after a mild 
winter, but in 15 years nine dates for first 
song are found as late as April and some- 
times not until the latter part of it As a 
rule first song is not far from date of arrival, 
but sometimes they keep silent for over a 
week. They sing all summer, even in hottest 
days of July. 

Has never heard the song between August 
4 and October 6, but from that date to Nov- 
ember 1 7 they are not infrequently heard to 
practice. Is not sure that they make two 
successful broods in a year, because all early 
broods that came to his knowledge came to 
an untimely end. 

Pktlo Smith, St, Louis. No. 74, Bond 
County. 

Resident, but not common. 

Nests ; seems to prefer osage orange hedges. 
A large bulky nest, like Brown Thrush, 3 to 
7 feet from ground. Found from May 5 to 
June 10, the last being second set Set, 4 
and 5. 

C. P. Foir, Wayland, Mo. 

Summer resident. Not abundant 

Arrive May ist, leave about August ist 

Breed sparingly. 

May 10, 1887, 1-4, in wild plum tree, 6 
feet from ground, composed of twigs, weed 
stalks, grasses, etc., lined with wool ; roughly 
made. 

Young were taken from the nest, caged 
and hung on a porch, where the old birds 
continued to feed them. 

At the same time a second nest was made, 
similar to first, in a plum bush 30 feet from 



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May, 1893.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



69 



the house. Four eggs laid and hatched. 
These were also caged and fed by old birds 
until they were full fledged. 

C J, Lenten^ Uniontown, Ky. 

Resident, but not numerous in winter. 
More common on high lands than low. 

Robert Rtdgway. " Natural History 
Survey of Illinois. — Ornithology of Illinois/* 
Vol. I. 

" In Illinois, as in many other States, its 
distribution is very irregular, its absence 
from certain localities apparently in every 
way suited to its requirements being very 
difficult to account for. Thus, while one or 
two pairs breed in the outskirts of Mt Car- 
mel nearly every season, it is nowhere in 
that vicinity a common bird. Thirty miles 
further north, however, in the vicinity of 
Olney, where the country is more open, I 
have found it almost abundant, on one occa- 
sion six males having been seen and heard 
singing along the roadside during a Ihree 
miles drive from town. 

"Mr. H. K. Coale informs me that he 
saw a Mocking-bird in Starke County, Ind., 
60 miles southeast of Chicago, January i, 
1884; that Mr. Green Smith had met with 
it at Kensington Station, 111., and that several 
had been observed in the parks and door- 
yards of Chicago. In the extreme southern 
portion of the State the species is abundant 
in suitable localities, and is resident through 
the year." (Olney is in No. 79 on the 
map.) 

Robert Kennicott. " Catalogue of Birds 
Observed in Cook County, Illinois." (Trans. 
III. State Agric. Soc., I, 1853-55.) 

" Rare ; known to nest in Cook County." 
(No. 7). 

H. Pratten. " Catalogue of the Birds of 
Illinois, Wayne and Edwards Counties." 
(Nos. 82 and ^z*) Trans. 111. State Agric. 
Soc., I., 1853-55. 

" Mocking-bird." (No remarks made.) 

Rtdgway. " Catalogue of the Birds of 
Illinois." Bulletin of the Illinois Museum 
of Natural History, Vol. I. 



"Entire State, but very local, even in 
southern part, where resident." 

"a £ a," Vol. 9, July and August, 1884. 

" List of Birds Collected near St. Louis, 
Mo., Julius Hurter." (Madison County, No. 
73, map.) 

" Summer resident ; abundant." 

"O. d: a," Vol. 8, February, 1883. 

A. H. Mundt, Fairbury, Livingston County 
(No. 23 on map). 

" Mocking-birds have built here for sev- 
eral years. Though scarce, are increasing 
every season." 

B. W. Nelson. Bulletin Essex Institute, 
Vol. VIII., December. "Birds of North- 
eastern Illinois." 

" Mocking-bird : A verycare summer res- 
ident. I know of but few instances of its 
occurrence in the vicinity of Chicago. Dr. 
Hoy has recorded six nests obtained in the 
vicinity of Racine, Wis." 

B, W. Nelson, "Birds observed in 
Southern Illinois between July 1 7 and Sep- 
tember 4, 1875." Bulletin of the Essex In- 
stitute, Vol. IX., 1877. 

Cairo and vicinity. 

" Mocking-bird : Rare. Only observed 
at Mound City." (Six miles above Cairo.) 

Not given by Everman in his " Birds of 
Carroll County, Ind." 

W. S. Cobleigh. No. 33. 

Has found it a summer resident. Arrives 
about the middle of May. Are quite rare. 
Has found it breeding. Nests placed in haw 
trees about 6 feet from ground ; composed 
of twigs, rootlets, etc., lined with feathers. 

Nests about the last of May. Thinks they 
raise two broods. 

Set, 4 to 6 eggs, of a greenish ground 
color, marked with blotches of chocolate and 
purple; size, .98 x .78. 

Charles W. TindalL No. 54. 

Summer resident Not common. 

Nest on June 2 1 . Two pairs seen during 
two years, from 1890 to 1892. Nest con- 
tained 3 eggs, hatched on June 25. 

From the information at hand, it would 



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appear that the Mocking-bird occurs as a 
summer resident in nearly all parts of the 
State, very rare or perhaps a straggler in the 
northern third of the State, yet Kennicott 
gives it as nesting near Chicago and Dr. 
Hoy records 6 nests near Racine, Wis. 

It is found in various localities as a sum- 
mer resident in the middle third, in some 
places being even tolerably common. In 
Fazewell County it has been found quite reg- 
ularly during the nesting season. In the 
southern third it is even abundant in some 
localities, while in others it is rare or seems 
entirely wanting. It seems to prefer the 
lower side of the Illinois River and to follow 
it up — even as far as Chicago — without 
crossing it to any great extent. 

The distribution of the Mocking-bird is 
very uncertain. In one county it will be 
found and in another adjoining it will not be 
seen, or is very rare. To all appearances 
the localities are equally suitable for it. 

One drawback to its study is the fact that 
by the average person Thrushes, Catbirds or 
even Shrikes are often called Mocking-birds, 
making any report except from a " book " 
observer unreliable. Most of the reports 
give them as preferring a hilly country where 
there is plenty of sand. 

The nest is placed in some kind of a thorn 
tree or brush pile and is so nearly like that 
of the Brown Thrush as to need no descrip- 
tion. It is usually not over 6 feet from the 
ground. 

The date of nesting varies greatly in this 
State, extending from April to June ; but the 
general opinion is that two broods are reared 
in one season. 

The number of eggs varies from 3 to 6, 
with an average of 4. 

The eggs vary greatly in size. Davie gives 
.94 x .71 as a common size. 

A. C. Murchison, 



I found the nest of a white-bellied Nuthatch 
May 15, with nine fresh eggs ; nest in oak 30 
feet from ground. G. Flummery Boston. 



My First Day of Egg Collecting. 



Egg collecting was far from being a science 
at Omaha when Charley Meyers and I en- 
tered the High School. We found about 
eight fellows there with collections ranging 
from 20 to 120 varieties, and the man who 
had the 120 collection was the only one who 
had really read or made any study of his 
collecting ; the others had heard that there 
were books about birds and eggs, but 
guessed that they didn't amount to much. 
Most of them looked with admiring awe at 
the 1 20- man, and talked knowingly among 
themselves of Kingbirds and Buntings, and 
boasted of two sets of Doves* eggs in one 
day. 

Charley and I were both taken with the 
idea of collecting, and likewise gazed admir- 
ingly at the 120-man, who had gotten every 
kind of egg around Omaha, so rumor said, 
and for a while we also talked of getting 
numbers of common eggs that we ought to 
have been shot for taking. We went into 
the subject with a good deal of enthusiasm, 
and after a little we caught and passed all 
but two or three of the other boys, and along 
towards the close of the season we discovered 
a book in the public library that was devoted 
to birds and eggs and was not half so dry as 
one would think, and from that we gathered 
the idea that perhaps the 1 20-man had not 
gotten every kind of egg that flourished near 
Omaha. We read that book quietly, and 
after a while it began to dawn upon us that 
off in the woods near the river there was no 
good reason why there should not be Crow 
and perhaps Hawk nests, a possibility that 
nearly took our breaths away, for no collec- 
tion in town boasted of a Hawk's egg, and 
the only Crow's was one in the collection of 
the 120-collector, and he had gotten it by 
exchange with a collector in another city, 
and he held it as the pride of his collection.^ 

When we recovered from the shock of the 
idea, we held further communion with the 
book and became certain that those river 



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71 



woods, which were five miles from town and 
never been explored so far as we could as- 
certain by careful questioning, contained a 
mine of wealth for collectors. We were 
greatly surprised to read that any birds 
nested in March, and we hardly believed 
it ; we knew that none of the fellows there 
ever started out until May, and May first 
was considered too early to hope for much 
success. 

We determined that next spring we would 
make those other fellows open their eyes if 
that book, which was written by a man 
named Coues, was at all reliable, and ac- 
cordingly we took the first holiday and 
tramped off to the woods to verify our sus- 
picions if possible. They were verified. 
We found that the woods comprised a big 
marshy area of ground, with numbers of big 
Cottonwood trees scattered through ; and fif- 
teen minutes after entering the edge we spied 
a bulky object in a tree some distance off, 
and racing over found that it was really an 
old nest, and a big one. A Crow's nest 
without doubt, we assured each other, and 
shook hands gleefully. During the next 
hour we found three more wrecks, and then 
went home satisfied and full of wild enthu- 
siasm and excitement, which we found hard 
to hide at school the next day. 

It was a good while till spring, though, 
and we cooled off some, read our book care- 
fully, ordered a bigger drill for the prospec- 
tive eggs, made a couple of larger and deeper 
collecting boxes, and completed arrange- 
ments by getting a ball of heavy twine to 
lower the boxes and eggs from the nests. 
" It will be awkward lugging all that stuff 
along, but it would be too risky bringing 
those eggs down in our mouths." We were 
ready to tackle a colony then. 

April 19th — a day I shall always remem- 
ber, I believe — was the day we set for our 
hunt. The -book said the last of March or 
the first of April, but that was ridiculous. 
It was too cold for a bird to sit all day on a 
nest then. The man that wrote that book 



was a little imaginative, we said, and the 
19 th was probably too early, but we would 
go then to make sure. 

As the day grew near we became nearly 
wild with the exciting prospect ; though, as 
we afterwards confessed to each other, neither 
of us had but a faint hope. Those nests had 
looked so old. 

The 1 8th was muggy, and we were blue, 
for we were forbidden to go if it was rain- 
ing. We cheered each other up, though, and 
as we parted at school I told Charley I would 
be there all right in the morning. I was to 
call for him, as he was nearest the woods, 
and I was to be there at 4.30 so we could 
get there by good day-light and have plenty 
of time for a long hunt. I woke at three, 
three-quarters of an hour before I needed 
to ; but I hurried into my clothes and went 
out doors. My heart sank, for though it was 
too dark to see iXfelt wet and I knew it was 
going to be a bad day. I went dismally in 
when suddenly it flashed over me that I was 
forbidden to go if it was raining. It wasn't 
raining, and I gobbled my breakfast cold, 
tied up my lunch, grabbed my box and 
rushed off before it could begin. One 
whistle brought Charley out, declaring that 
I was late and that he had been waiting an 
hour and a half ; but on consulting the watch 
that I had borrowed from my brother we 
found that I was twenty minutes early, and 
that he had been waiting about sixteen. We 
aimed for the edge of town, and had hardly 
reached the outskirts when a steady drizzle 
began ; but that was nothing now, and we 
sang and whistled and once in a while gave 
wild yells to let off the excitement we felt 

I looked at the watch as we reached the 
edge of the woods and found that it was 
5.15, and then I tripped over a root and 
threw it accurately at a log near by. The 
hands went on a strike immediately, although 
the watch was not a repeater, and we were 
minus the time. We were a little put out at 
that, for the rain was still with us and there 
could be no sun to tell time by. Charley 



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remarked that I was a lunkhead at first, but 
we concluded that our inner boy would 
notify us when it was lunch time, and plunged 
into the woods. 

For half an hour we tramped through the 
wet grass and saw never an old nest even; 
then through the mist I spied a big mass of 
something in a tree a good ways off. I 
thought I did at least, and pointed it out to 
Charley, but it was so indistinct that we both 
became doubtful about its being a nest and 
hesitated about going after it, for it looked 
a good half a mile away. It was the only 
thing we had seen, though, and we started 
for it, and it apparentiy started for us at the 
same time, for we approached it with aston- 
ishing rapidity. We found that the fog and 
mist gave the distance effect, afterwards. It 
was a nest, and when we got within about 
300 feet of it a huge bird suddenly reared 
itself on the edge, took a brief look at us, 
spread its wings, and with three flaps it had 
disappeared among the trees. But we had 
seen it. "A hawk ! " Charley yelled, and in 
a moment we were at the foot of the tree, 
dancing with delight. It was an awful tree 
to climb when we came to look at it ; a large 
Cottonwood with the nest a good 60 feet 
from the ground, and not a limb below 50 
feet That didn't bother us much, for we were 
both good climbers, but what did bother us 
was the action of that Hawk. According to 
the books we had read she should have cir- 
cled around with shrill cries, and occasionally 
darted fiercely at our heads ; but instead of 
that, she had apparently gotten disgusted with 
the climate and gone South. That was 
what Charley suggested as he wrung the 
water out of his hat so it would not drip 
down his neck. I suggested that she had 
gone after other Hawks to help fight us, and 
Charley said perhaps I had better take his 
hatchet up with me. (I forgot to say that 
as I had found the nest I had the privilege 
of climbing it. What idiots boys are ! And 
yet, now I think of it, I saw grown men not 
long ago fighting for tickets that would en- 



titie them to walk six miles in a procession, 
carrying a greasy and ill-smelling torch, to 
celebrate a victory that did not mean half 
so much personally as that nest did to us.) 
I thought that the box and ball of string 
were enough to carry, and dispensed with 
the hatchet and trusted to Charley to scare 
the Hawk off with sticks if she came back, 
and up the tree I went with a heart beating 
high with hope. 

It was a terrific climb, for the tree was 
wet and slimy, and I clawed down dirt into 
my eyes, and my feet refused to take hold, 
so that I was just about breathless when I 
reached the nest and peered over the edge ; 
but all that I had left came out in a wild 
yell of joy, for there were three eggs in the 
nest that looked as big as moons. " Three 
beauties," I called to Charley, and he im- 
mediately fell to executing a startling war 
dance, while I sat on a limb and spit out 
the dirt and waved my hat. 

I can feel yet the crawly feeling I had as 
I wrapped the eggs and lowered them in the 
box. I think that if they had fallen by any 
chance I would have hit the ground before 
they did. When I reached the bottom 
Charley had stopped standing on his head 
and was blowing one of them. Then we 
concluded that the book man was not a 
falsifier, for those birds were nearly grown. 
Charley said that the first one stuck his wing 
out of the hole and waved it, but I didn't 
believe that. We blew ourselves purple in 
the face, but got very poor results ; then we 
bent pins and straws and did a litde better 
(neither of us had ever seen an embryo hook 
then) ; but after nearly half an hour's work 
we gave it up and packed the eggs up with 
the bigger part of the innocents still in them. 
We looked at them lovingly as they lay in 
the box, — as large as duck eggs, but nearly 
round, two finely specked with brown and 
the other a dirty white. (Western Red- 
tails, we found afterwards from that book.) 
Then we shook hands heartily and started 
out again. 



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In ten minutes we saw another nest, and 
Charley brought down a beautiful set of five 
Crow's eggs. They were fresh and blew 
easily, and very soon they were packed and 
we were off again, happy as larks. After 
some pretty wet tramping we found another 
nest and then another, but both were empty, 
and we were just beginning to realize how 
wet we were when we found a curiosity. 
We saw a queer looking thing in a low tree, 
and making our way over to it found that it 
was a dead Crow, which was hanging head 
down, with one foot caught in a little crotch 
in a branch. The poor thing was very 
skinny, and had evidently died of starvation 
there. 

After that we unanimously concluded that 
it <vas lunch time, and picking out the driest 
log we could find we sat down. It rained 
steadily, and we were chilled and wet, but I 
hardly ever ate a better lunch. And as we 
ate we talked of the [success we had had, 
and of the morrow at school and the envy 
of the other boys, till we got warm over the 
talk and started off eagerly again. After 
about half an hour we found another Crow's 
nest and five more eggs. A set for each ! We 
grinned idiotically at each other. Then we 
came to a thick part of the woods and sep- 
arated so as to cover the ground thoroughly, 
walking in parallel lines. Fifteen minutes 
later I was startled by a resounding yell, 
" Add, come here ! " I went with a rush 
and found Charley dancing around in front 
of a low tree covered with grape vine. His 
eyes were sticking out, and he was brandish- 
ing his hatchet wildly at a bunch of sticks in 
the vines. "Wh-wh-what is that thing," he 
cried, and as I looked I stared in amazement 
too, and gave it up. There on the nest was 
something brown and yellow and black, and 
over the side nearest us hung what was cer- 
tainly a flat bird- tail, but staring at us directly 
over the tail was a queer striped face, with 
a big pair of hairy ears. The only thing I 
could think of was a monkey, but monkeys 
don't have flat tails, and as we jabbered ex- 



citedly the beast itself solved the mystery 
by turning its head squarely the other way 
and scrambling awkwardly off the nest and 
flapping into an adjoining tree, where it sat 
and snapped its beak at us viciously. It was 
an Owl, an American Long-eared Owl, as 
we found from the book. The thing had 
simply been facing the other way when we 
came up and had turned its head to look at 
us, and then put up its ears. We had never 
seen one before — that was all. 

Charley was up in the vines in a minute 
then, and in a minute more was on the 
ground with five beautiful glassy white eggs. 
I won't tell you what we did then. It was 
justifiable anyway. We had come out with 
fear and trembling after Crow's eggs, and 
had found not only Crow's but Hawk's and 
Owl's ! It surpassed anything we had ever 
read of, and we rejoiced accordingly. 

They were perfectiy fresh and blew easily 
with tiny holes and were soon packed up and 
we were off again. That ended the day, 
though. We tramped till five o'clock as 
nearly as we could tell from the rain and 
gathering gloom, and then started for home, 
aiming to get there for a 6.30 supper. Five 
miles through the rain we went, with drip- 
ping clothes and tired limbs, creating some 
surprise as we walked through the city streets, 
but we didn't mind. I wouldn't stop at 
Charley's, because I wanted to get home and 
hurrah, and also because I began to think 
that it was later than we gave it credit for 
being, and I didn't want to be late for a hot 
supper. I wasn't 

I got into the house at exactly 2.20, to 
my intense surprise and disgust. We had 
been utterly fooled by the darkness of the 
day and perhaps by our own tired feeling, 
and I thought with indignation of the root 
I had fallen over. We could have had two 
hours more but for that measly watch ! But 
when I got rubbed down and into dry clothes 
and settled comfortably at the table, with hot 
coffee and toast which my dear mother 
stopped her work to prepare, and spread all 



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my eggs in state on the table in front of me, 
I concluded that it was all right anyway, and 
I sat and grinned at mother and told the 
tale of the day and the noon lunch that we 
must have eaten before 10.30, and expati- 
ated on the triumph at school on the mor- 
row with a blissful content which only you 
who have had similar experiences can ap- 
preciate. A, C. Townsend, 
Washington. 

[I trust that Mr. Townsend will send more 
of his delightfully written experiences. 



Nesting of the Brown Pelican. 



In 1 89 1 I was spending some months in 
Florida, and learning of a large rookery of 
the Brown Pelican, several of us resolved to 
visit the spot. Accordingly, on February 
17, six of us sailed for the island in the 
yacht " Lida," fully prepared to secure speci- 
mens of birds and eggs. I will describe this 
island as to locality, as there are numerous 
other breeding grounds in the State. The 
spot known as Pelican Island is about six 
miles south of Uricco* on the Indian river, 
which, as the readers may know, is only a 
lagoon, but has received the name of river 
from its long, narrow, shape. This strip of 
salt water lies along the east coast of the 
State and is separated from the Atlantic by 
a long narrow strip of land, which is inter- 
sected at wide and irregular inten^als by 
inlets to the sea. 

When we came near the island, a low, flat 
and irregular piece of soil of doubtful forma- 
tion, at no place above four feet elevation at 
low tide, the birds rose in great numbers. 
But it was only when we took the small boat 
and approached the nests that the scene be- 
came impressive. The huge birds raised in 
vast flocks and with a noise like thunder. 
They flew about, and mostly settled again in 

*A little south of 28 degrees north latitude, Brevard County, 
Fla. ' 



the water just out of shot-gun range. We 
variously estimated their numbers. Some 
placed the number of birds at 10,000, but I 
feel safe in saying there were easily half 
that number. We watched their peculiar 
ways of fishing, which are worthy of study, 
and I wish you could afford space for a de- 
scription. Many of the birds, nesting ones 
probably, flew within range, and fell easily 
to the guns of the party, and we secured an 
abundance of specimens, in fact many more 
than were needed. The writer tried hard 
to stop the slaughter, but failed miserably ; 
the carnage only ceasing when the ammu- 
nition gave out, and the blood-thirsty north- 
em tourists had no further means of butch- 
ering. This practice, a most pernicious one, 
is the direct means of decimating the bird 
fauna of the South. Nearly all northern 
toiu-ists think that Florida birds are there 
for the purpose of gratifying their love of 
shooting. The result is very great destruc- 
tion. 

There were several hundred nests, all told ; 
mostly built on the ground, sand, generally 
within a few yards of the water, and often 
not over six inches above high tide. The 
nests were of coarse dried grass of different 
kinds, and when first built appeared to have 
a nest-form, but in time, especially after the 
young birds had gained some size, lost all 
resemblance of a nest and were spread out 
in a most shiftless manner. A few nests 
were built in mangroves at the edge of the 
island, and these were largely composed of 
twigs for a foundation, but the upper part 
was as shiftless and dirty as the surface 
structures in a short time. The island was 
at the most four acres in extent. 

Considering the number of birds, there 
were very few nests, and my opinion was 
formed that the frequent incursions on the 
site by the considerate bird protectors ( ?) 
was the direct cause. Many nests contained 
both eggs and young, while some nests held 
young two weeks or more old. These big 
young, covered with down, and, sitting up, 



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hissing at one from the nests, looked ex- 
ceedingly grotesque. Many large young sat 
speechless, from the fact that good-sized fish, 
head down, filled their mouths and grillets. 
The protruding tails of the fish were waved 
in the air as the frightened nestlings swayed 
about and attempted to disgorge the fish. 
Although the spines of the dorsal fins pre- 
sented the wrong way, as the fish are almost 
always swallowed head first, still not a few 
did disgorge their last swallowed fish. 

The average number of eggs is undoubt- 
edly three, but a few nests contained four, 
and many nests but two eggs. It was diffi- 
cult to secure sets of fresh eggs complete, as 
very often a nest was found to hold fresh and 
badly incubated eggs, and then again, but 
rarely, young with fresh eggs. The shell is 
covered invariably with a thick coating of 
calcareous matter, and as the eggs are gener- 
ally stained by lying in the nest, it is only 
possible to have clean specimens by scraping 
them or getting freshly laid eggs. 

The young for the first few days are naked 
and most disgusting looking objects. When 
very young they must be protected from the 
sun*s rays, which are very strong in Florida 
even in February. At the time of our trip 
the temperature in the sun was about 90'' 
Fahr. or more. Quite a number of the very 
young succumbed to the heat while we were 
there. Although the larger young can swal- 
low a good-sized fish, and we identified dve 
distinct species by dissection and from those 
disgorged, still the very young are supplied 
with dessicated fish food, and it is my belief 
the old ones disgorge the food for them at 
an early age, after the manner of the Herons. 

This rookery has been in existence for 
years, according to the natives, and was once 
of much greater extent. The birds must have 
begun nest building in December and per- 
haps in November in order to have young 
of a capacity to swallow a twelve-inch mullet 
by the middle of February. The birds fre- 
quently fly immense distances for their food, 
and may be seen fishing at most any point 



off the shore, where they ride the waves as 
easily as does a Duck swim on an inland 
lake. When flying, the birds draws in its 
head and doubles its neck, and looks, with 
its long bill, like an enlarged edition of a 
Woodcock on the wing. As an object to 
shoot at, it requires no skill whatever, as it 
can't be missed, and morever is easily injured. 

Of course we secured a good lot of eggs. 
We were not egg-hogs, but at the same time 
remembered our friends at the north. More- 
over, it was one chance in a lifetime. I at- 
tempted the feat of eating a cooked egg, but 
found it rank, and totally unfit for food. A 
starving man could eat it, but as for me, I 
prefer other varieties of egg vittles. 

We made careful dissections of several 
specimens and many peculiarities in the 
animal's economy. In the anatomy, nothing 
was more remarkable than the joining to- 
gether of the clavicles with the sternum. In 
other words, the wish-bone was joined at its 
apex with the breast-bone into one bone. 
This gives a remarkable appearance to the 
skeleton, and is a condition which I have 
found in no other family of birds. 

I stopped one night at a house near the 
Pelican roost. There was a boy lived there 
who had visited the island and secured several 
eggs which were ready to hatch. He was 
governed in his selection by hearing the 
young birds peep within their shells. The 
eggs were taken home and deposited in a 
large vacant room. During the night in 
March, the temperature being about 90*^ 
Fahr., two of the young birds emerged from 
their shell, and made the night hideous with 
their discordant, stridulous notes. In the 
morning we found that one of the young 
birds had scrambled fully twenty feet from 
the place where it had liatched. 

This instance is recorded as evidence of 
the effect of heat aside from that afforded 
by the incubating bird, and to show that 
young birds. Pelicans at least, can free them- 
selves from the egg shell without assistance. 

G. Slrrom, 



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Nest of the Sharp- shinned Hawk. 

This species is rather a rare resident in 
the vicinity of Listowel or any other part of 
Ontario that I have visited ; and though it 
is recorded as "abundant" in British Col- 
umbia, and as being " partially migratory," 
yet it did not come under my observations 
during my passage through, and short resi- 
dence in, that " sea of mountains." How- 
ever, every season since I began recording 
my avi faunian ol^ervations a few of the 
species have been noted every season in this 
vicinity, chiefly in the summer months, and 
occasionally in the months of February and 
March. And in my earlier days, in Peel and 
North Wallace, I had noted it as one of the 
worst enemies of small birds, wild and tame 
pigeons, and young domestic fowls. Accord- 
ing to my observations, the favorite habitat 
of this species is thick swamp woods, being 
but seldom seen in the more open, hard- 
wood timbered lands ; though, if it has a 
nesting home in some neighboring swamp, it 
often is seen hovering, kite like, over the 
the tree tops, or dashing swiftiy across the 
fields in quest of prey. Again it may be 
seen, on a mid-summer day, going through 
the trees of an orchard, seeking for the nests 
of small birds as a small bird would do in 
search of insects, and when it has discovered 
the whereabouts of a flock of young chickens 
it will revisit the place, day after day, until 
it has appropriated every individual to its 
own special use or that of its young, unless 
the mother hen becomes doubly watchful, or 
a period is put to its marauding with the 
contents of a shotgun. Its nesting place is 
generally in some thickly timbered swampy 
evergreen wood. Some ten years ago I dis- 
covered a nest with four eggs of this species ; 
I afterwards described it in " The Canadian 
Sportsman and Naturalist." This nest, which 
was quite a bulky affair and composed wholly 
of the small dry branches of tamarac, was 
placed in a cedar tree, about thirty feet off 
the ground. Since then no other occupied 



nest of this bird had been discovered till the 
summer of 1891, when I became aware that 
a nest containing the young of this species 
was situated in a piece of deep swamp near 
the northeast comer of Wildwood, but being 
desirous that the birds would return and nest 
again in the vicinity, I did not disturb them 
or even go in to see the exact position of 
the nest. 

On the 30th of April, 1892, as I was doing 
some work near by, and on the alert to catch 
every sight and sound of bird life that effected 
my surroundings, the notes of some bird that 
seemed strange to me came out from the 
centre of the swamp, and for some time I 
was at a loss to know what species could be 
their author. At length a Sharp-shinned 
Hawk, flying across an open in the wood 
and uttering similar notes, revealed the mys- 
tery of cause and effect. I had made a dis- 
covery ; these were the love and nesting notes 
of a female Sharp Shin, and she was about 
to nest in the same vicinity where I knew 
that the species had nested the previous 
summer, so I resolved to watch proceedings ; 
and three or four days after, as the notes still 
continued to be heard, I went in to investi- 
gate. As I approached the place where the 
hawk was perched, she flew towards and 
over me, darting out her claws and repeating 
her whacky whacky whacks ^ and tweet ^ 
tweet, tweetSy in her most wrathful manner, 
and then flew to a short distance, where she 
continued to exercise her voice from a higher 
standpoint 

After considerable search I discovered a 
large nest in a cedar tree about 20 feet off 
the ground, to which I climbed up, but 
found that it was evidently the nest occupied 
by the Hawk last year ; and thinking that it 
might be again occupied, I left, and a week 
later returned, and found that no repairing 
had been done; so I concluded that she 
must have a new nesting site nearer the 
place where I first discovered her, and which 
she still continued to occupy; and after a 
closer looking into the tops of the neighbor- 



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ing balsams I espied what I supposed to be 
the beginning of a new nest ; so I left again 
and did not return till the 23d of May, when, 
as I saw no Hawk and heard none of her 
notes, I tapped the tree, and out flushed the 
bird. The nest still appeared unfinished and 
light could be seen through it, but as the 
climb was easy, and only about 16 feet up, 
I mounted and found that there were three 
eggs in the nest, which was but a shallow af- 
fair, and wholly composed of small dry 
branches and twigs. Two days after I found 
that one more egg had been added, so I took 
the set, and found them very beautiful speci- 
mens. The ground color is whitish, with a 
bluish tint, but each egg is differentiy marked 
and blotched with chestnut or amber brown. 
They are of a spherical shape, being about 
equal ended, and average about 1.50 by 1.18. 
For about eight qr ten days after both Hawks 
were noticed in the vicinity, but after the 
first week of June they disappeared for the 
season, and I am of the opinion that the 
species nest but once in the year. 

WtVltam L. Kells, 



Late Nesting of the Bob-white. 



In your issue of January, 1892, page 8, 
are mentioned two late dates of finding the 
eggs of the Bob- white. Quail, or Virginia 
Partridge. These dates are given as August 
30, 1 89 1, and September 12, 1889, and 
are referred to as late dates. 

About the tenth of November, 1891, Ira 
Johnson, of Kalamazoo, a most reliable man, 
found a nest of this species containing twelve 
eggs. St was situated in a brush pile and 
gave evidence that it had been deserted. 

It may be claimed by doubters of this 
date that the nest had been deserted a 
month or two, but this does not seem prob- 
able, for the weather had been very cold, 
and yet the eggs gave no evidence of having 
been frozen. I think this date the latest 
yet reported from Michigan, but I doubt 
not that many hunters in the Union could 



give some remarkable records. It is well 
known that the Quail, or Colin, as it is now 
called by sticklers, has been found breeding 
almost every month of the year, and the 
females have repeatedly been found frozen 
stiff on their eggs in February and March. 

Regarding the above record, it is well 
known that the opening of the season for 
Quail, November ist, had long passed when 
this nest was found, as Mr. Johnson was 
hunting Quails at the time and had been 
out for several days. The eggs had not 
been incubated, and some made fair speci- 
mens. G. Sirrom. 

Kalamazoo, Michigan. 



A Home Among the Birds. 

The above title is an exact description of 
my home ; situated as it is in the midst of an 
apple orchard, it is surrounded by birds' nests 
as well as trees. Within three hundred feet 
of the house were to be found the following 
nests, all containing either eggs or young ; 

3 Robins, 

1 Bluebird, 

4 Chipping Sparrows, 

3 Chimney Swift, 

2 Pewee, 

4 Least Flycatchers, 
2 Baltimore Orioles, 
I Kingbird, 

I Catbird, 

I Yellow Warbler, 

I Bam Swallow, 

I Rough-winged Swallow, 

I Red-eyed Vireo, and 

I Ruby- throated Hummingbird. 

And undoubtedly there are some that 
have escaped detection. Who of the many 
readers of the " O. & O." can do better? 

S, R, IngersolL 



Will not our readers send us more articles 
for publication? Every one can relate 
something of interest. 



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THE 

ORNITHOLOGISTkJ^OOLOGIST 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OP 

NATURAL HISTORY, 

ESPECIALLY DEVOTED TO THE STUDY OF 

BIRDS, 

THEIR NESTS AND EGGS, 

AND TO THE 

INTERESTS OF NATURALISTS. 

Under the Editorial Management of 
FRANK B. WEBSTER, . . Hyde Park, Mass. 

J. PARKER NORRIS, . . . PhUadelphia, Pa. 



PUBUSHED AT THE 

MUSEUM AND NATURALISTS* SUPPLY DEPOT 

OF THE 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY, 

INCORPORATED, 

HYDE PARK, MASS. 



The O. & O. is mailed each issue to every paid subscriber. 
If you fail to receive it, notify us. 



Brief Notes, Correspondence, and 
Clippings. 



Editor of O. & or 

I have found out something that I think 
is worth knowing, perhaps, — the cause of 
the Snowy Owls being so scarce the past 
winter. A fisherman just arrived from Ice- 
land says the winter has been so mild this 
year that they have not had a hard frost the 
whole winter. I am satisfied this is the 
cause. What do you say ? N, Vzckary. 

Editor of O. d Or 

I have a simple and excellent receipt for 
drying eggs, and if it is not already old to 
your readers, I would ask that you publish 
it ; for it is by far the best I have ever known. 
The old way of drying them by absorption 
on blotting paper oftentimes causes a valuable 
egg to be broken near the hole, caused by 
the t%% sticking to the paper. Now my 
way does away with blotting paper, and the 
art of drying is done perfectly, and instantly. 
This is my way : After blowing the eggs, and 
after rinsing them with water, hold them 
over a hot stove or anything where hot air 
may touch the egg (hole down) ; and if you 



have never seen it done, I think you will be 
wonderfully surprised at the rapidity in which 
the water is forced from the egg, and how 
soon dried. 

All copyrights reserved. ( ?) 

Edwin C. Davis. 

Gainesville, Texas. 

The question has often been asked, " What 
do you recommend for a small collecting 
gun ?" In view of giving an answer, we have 
tried several and find that the X. L. gun is 
one that we can recommend. We had a 
44-calibre chambered for a 45 Winchester 
shell, and it works to perfection. 



But a 1 2 -gauge gun, with one of the col 
lecting tubes, of course is the gun — and is 
an outfit for everything that is required. 

"F. B. Webster: Dear Sir,— The orni- 
thological collectors of this country will cer- 
tainly thank you for the collecting tube you 
have devised. It is the best and cheapest 
thing of the kind that I know of. I have 
thoroughly tested its quality in my Colts* 
i2-guage, with results which are of the 
utmost satisfaction. Success to you. 

Oliver Davie, 

Columbus, Ohio, May 13, 1893. 



Reading I. C. Green's article in March 
"O. & O." on the breeding of the Duck 
Hawk on Mt. Tom, I would say that in 
October, 1892, a farmer brought to me a 
young Duck Hawk that was shot near Mt 
Tom range. 1 moimted it and now have it 
in my collection. It is a fine specimen. 

J. W. Jackson. 

I received on April 20 an Albino Robin. 
I also heard of an Albino Crow seen at 
Monson, Mass. C. K. Reed. 



I can report my first set of Wild Turkeys' 
eggs for 1893, — a set of 12 beauties taken 
in Stoddard County, Mo., April 27. 

Philo W. Smithy Jr. 

Several collections of eggs are on exhi- 
bition at the World's Fair, Chicago, 



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May, 1893.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



79 



American Woodcock. 

The American Woodcock is very seldom 
found in the vicinity of Detroit now, but 
there are still a few swamps where they can 
be found. In one of these swamps about 
three miles from the city I first made my 
acquaintance with their nest The swamp 
was a dense mass of brush and tall weeds 
on the northern side of Voighfs woods. On 
May 24, 1 89 1, I started out here, hoping to 
collect a few sets of eggs, with my chum, Harry 
Allis. We had fair luck and were returning 
homeward when I started a female Wood- 
cock from nearly under my feet, and there 
was a nest containing two nearly full-fledged 
young. The nest was only a slight hollow, 
lined with fine grass. I hid a short distance 
off, and soon I heard the old bird chuckle 
and call to the young, much like the com- 
mon domestic hen does. The young crept 
out of the nest, and crept slowly away, hid- 
ing under the plants as they went. The 
next day. May 25, I went out alone to the 
swamp, and found two other nests contain- 
ing young; the first had three young who 
could fly a little, and the second two half- 
fledged young. I was feeling rather dis- 
couraged over the result, although I knew it 
was very late for them. Going on farther to 
a denser part of the swamp, I had seated 
myself on a hillock when I espied a nest 
containing four eggs in a clump of bushes 
under a small tree. The nest was composed 
of dried grass and leaves, and was quite a 
large structiure. The eggs were very hand- 
some, being a creamy buff, dotted with red- 
dish brown, and were a trifle incubated. I 
felt so elated over my find that I just stood 
and looked at them for several minutes until 
my senses came back, and then I packed 
them carefully in my collecting box. On 
June 8th I went out again with J. Claire 
Wood, and we flushed several and Mr. Wood 
shot two. Since then the swamp has been 
burnt down and ploughed up. This was 
my first and only set of eggs. On June i, 
1889, H. Allis and I went collecting in a 



dense swamp east of Highland Park. We 
had a good success, getting a set of four 
Myrtle Warblers, two Black-billed Cuckoos, 
Rose-breasted Grosbeaks, etc. I started a 
Woodcock from a clump of bushes, and she 
circled around and around the place, and 
seemed very disinclined to leave. I searched 
carefully for the nest, but without success, 
although I am certain one was there. The 
Woodcock is a very wary bird, and you can 
seldom surprise them. In fact they usually 
siuT;)rise you by their sudden uprising and 
the peculiar noise made by their wings. 
The Woodcock is a summer resident here, 
arriving the latter part of March and staying 
till October. They are nocturnal and re- 
main in dense underbrush unless flushed. 

B, H. Swales, 
Detroit, Michigan. 



Breeding Habits of the Ruby-throat 
at Ballston, New York. 



This little gem in feathers arrives from its 
winter home in Guatemala and Mexico 
about the loth of May, the males usually in 
advance of the females. After devoting 
about two weeks to rollicking and courtship 
they proceed to find a suitable location for 
their nest. In this different members dif- 
fer very much, some choosing high, open 
woodlands, others dense thickets, but by far 
the greater number resort to the orchard 
near the abode of man, and there, on a hori- 
zontal limb at no great distance from the 
ground, they commence the construction of 
one of the handsomest of nests, composed 
of vegetable down and covered with lichens 
which are held in place by numerous cob- 
webs. This piece of bird architecture is 
built by both birds and takes from ^vt, to six 
days to complete. The female then deposits 
her complement of eggs and incubation be- 
gins at once and is the work of the female, 
the male standing guard, or securing food 
for his mate. At the end of 8 or 9 days 
the young are hatched, and then for the 
next two weeks the parent birds are kept 
busy from daylight until dark finding food 
for these hungry mites. At the end of this 
time they are large enough to leave the nest, 
and in a few days more are left to shift for 
themselves. About the first of September 
they are off for the south, the old ones a few 
days in advance of the young. 

i?. 6*. Ingersoll. 



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SPECIAL PRICES F OB 1893. 

For those not listed, see our regular Catalogue. 

POST EXTRA. 



A.O.U. Nos. 








3 Horned Grebe . . . . $o 20 


4 American Eared Grebe 




13 


5 St. Domingo Grebe 




20 


6 Pied-billed Grebe 






6 


7 Loon 






80 


9 Black-throated Loon 






75 


11 Red-throated Loon 






50 


12 Tufted Puffin 






60 


13 Puffin . 






12 


27 Black Guillemot 






20 


29 Pigeon Guillemot 






40 


30 Murre . 






12 


30a California Murre . 






15 


31 Brunnich*8 Murre 






15 


31a Pal las' 8 Murre 






40 


32 Razor-billed Auk . 






12 


35 Skua . 






40 


37 Parasitic Jaeger . 






35 


40 Kittiwake 






20 


42 Glaucous Gull 








47 Great Black-backed Gul 


1 




25 


49 Western Gull 






20 


51 Herring Gull 






15 


51a American Herring Gull 






10 


53 California Gull . 






20 


54 Ring-billed Gull . 






15 


[56] Mew Gull 






20 


58 Laughing Gull 






12 


59 Franklin's Gull 






20 


63 Gull-billed Tern . 






ID 


64 Caspian Tern 






30 


65 Royal Tern . 






20 


67 Cabot's Tern 






20 


69 Forster's Tern 






ID 


70 Common Tern 






5 


71 Arctic Tern . 






5 


72 Roseate Tern 






12 


74 Least Tern . 






5 


75 Sooty Tern . 






15 


[76] Bridled Tern . . 






80 


77 Black Tern . 






8 


79 Noddy . 






20 


80 Black Skimmer 






8 


86 Fulmar . 






35 


[90] Manx Shearwater . 






50 


92 Audubon's Shearwater 






I 00 


104 Stormy Petrel 






30 


106 Leach's Petrel 






15 


117 Gannet . 






25 


1x8 Anhinga 






15 



119 


Cormorant .... 


$015 


120 


Double-crested Cormorant . 


»5 


120a 


Florida Cormorant 


20 


122 


Brandt's Cormorant 


25 


123b 


Baird's Cormorant 


25 


125 


American White Pelican 


20 


126 


Brown Pelican 


>5 


128 


Man-o'-War Bird . 


I 00 


129 


American Merganser 


60 


»3o 


Red-breasted Merganser 


20 


132 


Mallard 


10 


133 


Black Duck .... 


25 


[138] European Teal 


10 


139 


Green-winged Teal 


40 


140 


Blue-winged Teal . 


10 


141 


Cinnamon Teal 


15 


142 


Shoveller 


20 


H3 


Pintail 


24 


144 


Wood Duck .... 


60 


146 


Redhead .... 


>5 


151 


American Golden-eye . 


60 


152 


Barrow's Golden-eye 


35 


154 


Old-squaw 


25 


155 


Harlequin Duck . 


60 


158 


Spectacled Eider . 


200 


159 


Greenland Eider . 


25 


160 


American Eider . 


10 


167 


Ruddy Duck .... 


30 


169a 


Greater Snow Goose 


2 00 


[171 


1 White-fronted Goose . 


90 


172 


Canada Goose 


75 


172a 


Hutchin's Goose . 


75 


177 


Black-bellied Tree-duck 


I 00 


[179] Whooping Swan . 


I 00 


182 


American Flamingo 


50 


183 


Roseate Spoonbill 


60 


;u 


White Ibis .... 


30 


Glossy Ibis 


30 


187 


White-faced Glossy Ibis 


75 


188 


Wood Ibis .... 


75 


190 


American Bittern . 


75 


191 


Least Bittern 


15 


192 


Great White Heron 


90 


193 


Ward's Heron 


30 


194 


Great Blue Heron . 


20 


[195] European Blue Heron . 


15 


196 


American Egret . 


20 


197 


Snowy Heron 


15 


198 


Reddish Egret 


25 


199 


Louisiana Heron . 


8 


200 


Little Blue Heron 


8 


201 


Green Heron 


8 


202 


Black-crowned Night Heron 


6 


203 


Yellow-crowned Night Heron 


15 


207 


Limpkin .... 


50 


208 


Ling Rail .... 


10 


211 


Clapper Rail .... 


10 




Digitized by VjO( 


3Qle 



1 




■ 


I^^^^H 


2IJ Virginia Rnil 


iO 


36+ 


American O^prey 30 ^^^^H 


^H 


[315] Spotted Crake 


15 


3fis 


American Barn Owl 






^^H 


^H 


314 bora p . . . . 


5 


366 


American Long-eared Owl 




^^^H 


^H 


[J17I Corn Crake , . . , 


to 


S 


Shoit-eared Owl , 






^^H 


^1 


21S Purple Gallin LI le * 


20 


Barred Owl . 






^^H 


^H 


219 Florida Galllnule . 


6 


37^ 


Saw- whet Owl 






^^^1 


^H 


[:zoJ European Coot . . . . 


it> 


373 


Screech Owl . 






^^H 


^H 


221 AmtTican Cool 


5 


373" 


Florida Screech Ow! 






^^H 


^H 


253 NorlUern Phalarope 


.^5 


373t> 


Texan Screech Owl 






^^H 


^H 


^24 Wilson's Phaliirope 


6c 


373c 


California Screech Owl 






^^H 


^H 


12^ Amerkan Avocet - 


50 


375 


Great Horned Owl 






1 ^^^^1 


^H 


226 Black-necked Still 


45 


37>^ 


Western Horned Owl . 






I ^^^^1 


^H 


22S Americnn Woodcock 


75 


37S 


Burrowing Owl 






^^^H 


^1 


[I2q] Enropenn Snipe . 


1^ 


37Sa 


Florida Burrowing Owl 






^^^1 


^H 


230 WiUon'ti Snip*; 


I 00 


3S1 


Elf Owl. . \ 






^^^^H 


^H 


[243] Dunlin 


55 


'X" 


Ani 






^^H 


^H 


249 ilarbled God wit . 




Groove-hilled Ani 






^^H 


^H 


2;j Bbck-miled God wit 




385 


Road-rnnner . 






^^^^1 


^H 


[■25S] Willet 




3S6 


Vellow-billed Cuckoo 






^^^H 


^H 


260] Ruli ..... 


12 


Black-billed Cuckoo 






^^^^^ 


^B 


261 Bartramian Sandpiper . 


^5 


390 


Belted Kingfisher 






^^^^1 


^H 


263 Spotted Sandpiper 


to 


393 


H a i ry W ootlpec ke r 






^^H 


^H 


[267] Whinihrel .... 


25 


393c 


1 1 a rri s' s W ood pecker 






^^^M 


^H 


[2%] Lapwifij^' .... 


10 


394 


Down J' Woodpecker 






^^^^^H 


^V 


[271] Golden Plover 


30 


394'* 


Gairdner*s Woodpecker 






^^H 


^H 


275 Kilkleer .... 


10 


39fi 


?iaird'» Woodpecker 






^^H 


^B* 


275 Rini^ Plover - . . . 


10 


397 


Nuttairii Woodpecker 






^^H 


^K 


[276J Little Ring Plover 


20 


402 


Veltow^hellicd Sap sucker 




^^H 


^H 


277 Piping Plover 


4cr 
10 


405 


PiJeated Woodpecker . 




^^H 


^H 


2S0 Wilson's Plover . 


406 


Red -headed Woodpecker 




^^M 


^^ 


281 Mountain Plover , 


7> 


407 


California Woodpecker 




^^H 


^^^ 


2S5 Oyster-catcher 


'5 


410 


Golden -iron led Woodpecker 




^^^M 


^^1 


2S6 American 0^ *ter-catcher 


SO 


412 


Flicker .... 




^^^^1 


^V 


289 Bob'White \ 


6 


413 


Red-i^h aired Flicker 






^^^^1 


^H 


/iSga Florida Bob-white 


10 


416 


Chuck-will'^^widow 






I ^^H 


^H 


2S9b Tesan Bob-uhite , 


6 


4*7 


Whip-poor* will 






^^^H 


^H 


292 Mountain Partridge 


60 


419 


Parauque 






t ^^H 


^B^ 


292a PUnned Partridge . 


60 


420 


Nighthawk . 






^^H 


^^^^L 


293 Scaled Partridge . 


50 


4ioa 


We K tern Night hawk 






^^^H 


^^^^P 


293a Che^tnut-be-liicd Scaled Partridge 


30 


4^oc 


Florida Night hawk 






^^H 


^^^^ 


[294] California Part rid jt^e 


6 


421 


Texan Kigbthavvk 






^^^^1 


^H^ 


294a \'allev Partridge . 


H 


423 


Chimney Swift 






^^^^1 


^H 


295 Ganibrel'ii Part rid sje 


1."* 


428 


R u h v-throated 1 1 umming-bird 


^^H 


^H 


300 Ru&ed Grouse 


10 


4-9 


B lacit-ch inned Humm i n g-bird 


^^^H 


^m 


301 WiUow Ptarmigan 


50 


430 


Cosita'K Humming-bird 


^^^1 


^H 


305 Prairie Hen .... 


to 


43 1 


Anna*!?- Humming-bird . 




^^^B 


^K 


joSa ColuTnb. Sharp-tailed Grouse 


40 


433 


Rufouiv HuTTiming-hird 




^^^1 


^K 


309 Sage Grons^e . 


■ t 


434 


Allen's Humming-bird 




^^^1 


^H 


3 to WildTurkev 


44' 


B r oad-b i 1 letl H m n m i n g -b i r d 




^^^^H 


^B 


31 J Chachabicn' .... 


25 


443 


Scissor- tailed Flvcatcher 




^^M 


^H 


312 Band-tiiiled Pigeon 


75 


444 


Kingbird 




^^H 


^^^^_ 


313 Red -billed Pigeon 


50 


445 


Gray Kingbirc) 




^^H 


^^^^1 


315 Pas^senger Pigeon 


. 300 


447 


Arkansas Kingbird 




^^H 


^^^^m 


31^1 Mourning Dove * 


3 


44S 


Ca&sin^s Kingbird 




^^^H 


^^f 


31S White-fronted Dove 


20 


45^ 


Created Flycatcher 




^^^H 


^m 


319 VVhite*vvinged Dove 


10 


453 


Mexican Credited Flvcatcher 




^^^1 


^H 


320 Ground Dove 


15 


456 


Pha-be , , .*'- . 




^^^1 


^H 


325 Tvirkev \'ulTiire 


50 


4.^7 


Sav*s Phoebe » 




^^^H 


^H 


326 BUck Vulture 


50 


45S 


Black Phtjebe 




^^^^M 


^H 


329 Mls&i^Kippi Kite . 


3 50 


4r,i 


Wo fid Pewce 




^^^^1 


^H 


331 Mar^h Hawk 


30 


462 


Western Wood Pewee . 


^^^1 


^H 


332 Sharp-shinned Hawk 


I 00 


463 


Ye 1 lo w -be 1 1 ied F l_v ca tc her 


^^^1 


^H 


333 Cooper* s Hawk' 


15 


4^4 


Western Flycatcher 


^^^H 


^H 


335 Hurrij^'s Hawk 


40 


4^5 


Acadian Flycatcher 




^^m 


^B^ 


[336] European Bu/zard 


25 


46r. 


Liliie Flvcatcher . 




^H 


^^^^K 


337 Red-hiiled Hawk . 


40 


^r^m 


Traill'K Flycatcher 




^^ 


^^^^1 


337t> Wi'*irijrn Red-tail . 


40 


4f>7 


Lea^t Fh catcher . 




M 


^^^^1 


339 Red'sbouidtred Hawk . 


2^ 


[473. 


Skylark: 




^fl 


^^^^1 


341 White-tailed Hawk 


I 00 


474 


Horned Lark 




^H 


^^^^1 


342 Sv\aint4on% Hawk 


\0 


47-l^> 


Prairie Horned Lzirk 




^H 


^^^^1 


343 Broad- w in J4:ed Hawk 


60 


474^^ 


De?iert Horned Li>rk 




^B 


^^^f 


[347] Rongb-leggcd Hawk . 


50 


475 


American Magpie . 




^H 


^^^^^ 


349 Golden Eatjle 


;oo 


476 


Yellow-billed Magpie . 




^H 


^^^^_ 


[351] Gray Sea l>a-le 


2 00 


4^7 


Blue Jay- 




^H 


^^^^1 


3!t2 Baid Ea-le . . 


1 00 


4S1 


Calif ornia Jay 




^H 


^^^^1 


[35S] Merlin 


3^ 


4S3 


Green Jay 




^H 


^^^^1 


359 Kestrel . , . . . 


15 


4S6 


American Ra\en . 




I ^^^H 


^^^^1 


360 American Sparrow Jfawk 


12 


4^7 


White- necked Raven 




^^ 


■ 


362 Audubon's Caracara 


7?: 


4SS 


American Crow C^ r^r^n^^ ^^^H 



4SSa 
4% 

[4^3] 

4'J4 

49s 

49.^^1 

496 

497 

499 
500 

501 
501b 

505 
506 
507 
50S 
51G 
Sii 

511b 

5U 

S19 

5.V 

53S 
540 
540a 

54<^ 
550 
55^ 

5S8 
560 
0oa 
561 

567 
5S1 

581b 

5S4 
5S6 

5SSa 
590 

591b 

593 

594 

595 

$¥* 

597 

59T^L 

S9S 

599 
6ot 

605 

6u 
612 
^13 
^14 

ft 1/^1 
617 
619 



Florida Crow 
Norlbwcist Crow. . 
Fi^b Crow . 

BoHolirrk 

Covvbirti 

Dwarf Cowbird . 

Brotized Co >v bird 

W 1 lo w - b ead ed B lac kbi rd 

Red- w Inured llbukbird . 

IJicolored BliRkbird 

Tricolnred Bbakbird . 

Meadovv Lirk , 

Weslcrn Mtadowlurk - 

llrjfxkd Urit»k 

Orcluird Oriole 

Hill tim ore Oriole . 

Bullock^ Oriole , 

Brewer'?, Bhickbird 

Purplt < Track le 

Florida Grackte 

Brorrzed Grackle . 

Great^tailed G ruckle 

Bo;it-tailcd Crackle 

Purple Finch 

liniise Fbicb 

^t. Lucas Hou&e Flncb 

AnicHcitii Goldfincli 

Arkiin^vs (k>ldiincb 

I^jiurcnce'^i Goldiincb t 

Lapland Loiij^^ipur 

Chcstnut-c:onarcd Long^pur 

(jra^^ IMncb , 

Wcr^tcrn Vesper Sparrow 

Savnona Hpsirrow , 

Ye I low- winged Sparrow 

Seaside Sparrow . 

Lark Sparrow 

Wesicrn Liirk Sparrow^ 

Whitt~th routed SpiirrtJW 

Chipping Spiirrow 

WesU*rn Cbippmi^ Sparrow 

Clav-Cfdored Sparrow . 

Field Hpfirrow 

Slflte-colored Junto 

Song Sparrow 

Det^ert Song Sparrow . 

MovintaiTi Song Sparrow 

Hei!rmau'?i Sonu Sparrow 

Sanun^rb Song Sparrow 

Swamp Spiirrow . 

Texai^ Spurrow 

Towbee 

White-eved Tow bee 

Spurred Tow bee . 

Cireen-iailed Towhec 

Cation Tow bee 

Cjiriforni:! Towhee 

Cardinul 

Texan Cardinal 

Rose-breasied Grosbeak 

Black-headed Grosbeak 

Bhic Grosbeak 

We^iiern libie Gra^t>e4tk 

Indt^fo Bunting 

La'uli Bunting 

Painted Bunting . 

Black'tbruatcd Bunting 

Lnrk Bn 11 ting 

Starlet Tana^er . 

Summer Tarmger . 

Pnrple Miirtio 

CHlt S Will low 

Barn Swallow 

Tree Swailow 

Violet-Green Swallow . 

Bank Swsdlow 

Roiigb-wi nged Swallow* 

Ccdirr Waxwm^ . 



20 I 620 

^5 I fi22H 

f^ ft2zh 
i^ 624 

5 ' ^^7 
10 628 
1 2 j 636 

5 Hi 

3 ^t 

^ I ^hS 

5 H^ 

TO ; 657 

667 
5! ^73 

y\ '>74 

5 ^>7> 

681 
6S4 

to I 6S7 



10 

io 
5 



5 

to 
6 



P bain ope pki . 
LoH:^erliead Shrike 
White-nunped Sbrikc . 
California Shrike , 
Red-eved Vireo 
Warbling Vitxxj 
Yenow-throated Vireo . 
Black and While W^arbkr 
Frf»tbonoiarv W^i rider . 
SwaiuHon's Warbler ♦ 
ParnU Warblt-r 
Yellow Wttrbler . 
Magnolia Warbler 
C b es t n u t-* i d ed ^\''ar bl e r 
Black- throated Green W'arbler 
Plil^ Warbler 
Prairie W^irbler * 
Oven-bird 
WiUer-Tbrtish 
L o n I « ia n a W^at e r-T h rn h b 
Miirv kind Yellow -til roal 
Yellow-hreaeied Chat . 
Long-tailed cbat . 
Hooded Warbler . 
Aniericaii Red^iart 



3 I t'^41 While Wagtail 



5 

6 

10 

3*^ 



703 
704 

30 7t>5 
5 7^' 
10,707 

% 7'^7»i 



5 

5 



710 
712 
713 

7^.^ 



25 I 71S 
5 719 



69?/^ SibcriiiU Yellow Waf?tait 
[69S] Meadow Pipit 
702 Sage Thrassbcr 

Mockingbird 

Cittbird 

Brown Tbrtu^her . 

TeJcHM Thrasher . 

Curve-billed Tbra??ber . 

PalmerVs Thrasher 

Ca 1 ifor n t a T b ras her 

Cri-^sal Thiasher . 

CjiciiiH Wren 

Rock Wren . 

Carolina Wren 

Florida Wren 

BewickV Wren 

Mgor'* W- ren 

Baird*"* W^ren 

^^OlJt^»e Wren 

Parkinan's Wren . 

W'eslern House Wren . 

t^bort-bined M^tr^h Wren 

Long-bilied Marsb Wren 

TulcWren . 

W^hite-hreasted Xnibatcb 

B row n -beaded N u t h) ilc b 

Chtekiidee 

Wren-Tit 

Calftornia Btisb-Tit 

Blue-grav Gnaicatcber . 

W^ood Thrush 

W'il?ion*s Thrush . 

Russet- backed TbiUhh . 

Olive-backed Thrush - 

Hen nit Thrn^b 

American Robin . 

W^^tern Robin 

Wlieatear 

Bluebird 

Western Blnebirti , 

Mountain Bluebird 



2^ 

5 

3 
15 
1.^ 

S 

5 
10 

S 
1^ 

12 
^> 

5 

4 

:»o 
6 

9 
^o 

JO 

7 
10 

5 

5 

10 

*5 
»5 

10 

5 
5 

20 1 Af ricun Ostrich, small 

5 AtVioin OKtricb, large 
20 East African Ostrich 

6 Emu 



719a 
719b. 

721 

751a 

7Jib 

7^4 

715 

7^5a 

727 

729 

735 

742 

743a 

75 i 

755 

75Sa 
759b 
761 
761a 

766 

?^ 

INTRODUCED SPECIES 
English Pheasant 
Ring Pheasant 
Green Pbea«ianl: 
Silver Pbe.i^ant 
\ Golden Phe«!sani: 
SUNDRIES. 



6 

5 

6 

6 
10 
10 

15 
50 

20 

5 
40 

n 
40 

40 

-5 

ii 

40 

4«> 
10 

5 
S 

40 

la 
S 

20 
6 

50 
\ 
3 
3 

10 

K) 
30 

10 

10 
10 

to 

15 

15 
4 
5 
!i 

30 
5 
8 

20 



3« 
30 
10 

S 

to 

10 

zo 

"5 

3 

5 

8 

3 
5 
10 



Black Gronse 
European Go Id finch 
Englis^b SpiUTOW , 
European Tree Sparrow- 
SkvUirk . 



Rhea 

Alligator 

Turtles . 

Snakes . * . 

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VOL. XVI II 



NO. 6. 




JUNE, 



CONTENTS. 



Some Pruirie Btrd* 

Di'-iributian ol the BJack-Cmvvncd Night Heron in 

11 1 mulls ...... 

My Outiit ..,.,, 

All Old-Thiie OnLinnr . . . . , 

Ne^itini,' of Giiiribcr;^ Qiiail in tli^ Colorado Dcf^tft 

Miill:ori>ii>lion in Birdj* . , . . . 

A Pew Facts jibout I he Turkfc'v Buzzord 

N'efisting ^iibit^ oi the Great Homed Owl 

Nates on Arkiifiisa'* Flycatcher In I'owner Conniy, 

North Dakota 

Kind^ 

Pour Datai^ ...... 

Large Egg*i of the Fiehl Spatrun' 



J, W. Preston 


Si 


A. C. ^rurchj'yfjn 


82 


Arthur M* Fsinner . 


- S^ 


W. S. Sirfuk, MJJ. 


86 


Fred. \\\ Koch 


yo 


Morris Gihb^, M.D. 


91 


R. IL While. Jr, 


9i 


James H. Purdv 


ijj 


Elmer F. Jiidd 


93 


Carl Fritz*Menning 


94 


Charles S. Butter^ . 


95 


G. S. IL 


95 



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HYDE PARK, MASS., JUNE, 1893. 



No. 6. 



Some Prairie Birds. 



Years ago, when northwestern Iowa was 
a vast prairie, out into which few settlers 
had ventured and the monotony was seldom 
broken save by some wood -fringed lake or 
a herder's shanty, I drove to that region 
about Spirit Lake, Iowa, which is now so 
well known as a summer resort. My way lay 
along the Iowa River, from the head waters 
of which stream, westward, was the great, 
flat prairie, interspersed with marshes and 
small lakes, about which swarmed countless 
numbers of shore birds. Here were troops 
of White Cranes, some far a- marsh, guard- 
ing their nests. Brown Cranes, Canada Geese, 
fighting each other and whipping the water 
into foam ; Long-billed Curlews ; Godwits ; 
Red-bellied Snipes; Golden Plover; Up- 
land Plover; American Bitterns; Ducks of 
many kinds : Mallard ; Pin-tails ; Red-heads ; 



Spoon-bill, Blue-winged Teal and occasion- 
ally a flock of White Pelicans settled on the ' apparently taking it easy. 



flat meadows or by low, gravelly hills, I 
reached the immense marsh lying north 
from Eagle Lake. Here were secured a 
number of the large, drab-and-spotted eggs 
of the White Crane. They had chosen the 
centre of the marsh for a nesting-place, and 
there, a mile from the higher shores, the 
mother birds could be seen upon the nests, 
which were formed of soft grass gathered 
together in a firm heap about one and one 
half feet high, and placed on firm sod, out 
of water, but very near it. In the top of 
this heap was a very slight depression for 
the eggs. Upon these nests the birds sit in 
the same posture that a goose assumes, the 
legs protruding behind. They often let the 
head and neck lie down along the side of 
the nest in a wearied way, which is usual for 
the Canada Goose, especially if the hunter 
is near. Upon my approaching the marsh 
these birds moved away with stately tread, 
walking much faster than I cared to do, yet 

The White Crane 



shores and waters of a lonely lake ; their i is certainly a .strikingly handsome bird in 
great white forms glistening brighter than . its wild retreats. One does not tire of 
the waters on which they floated. Swans watching their peculiar movements. When 



were frequently seen ; and Night Herons 
could be observed moping among the bogs. 
The larger number of these species re- 
mained during the summer and the natural- 
ist had a wide and interesting field for re- 
search. One memorable afternoon in early 
May I left the tent in kindly shelter of the 
fringe of woods on Crystal Lake, Winnebago 



walking at a distance they appear almost as 
tall as a man. They are far more alert and 
much wilder than the Brown Cranes. 

Several sets of Brown Crane's eggs were 
taken. 'I'heir nests being uniformly in the 
water, formed by tramping rush stalks down 
until the pile reached the surface, these 
nests often float about with the mother birds 



Co., Iowa, the lakelet in whose sparkling ! upon them. 

waters classic Iowa River finds birth. Fol- So interested had I become that on look- 
lowing the stream as it wound about through { ing about only a vague, red glow lay close 

Copyright, 1893, by Frank Blake Webstbr Company. 



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82 



ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. 18-N0.6 



along the horizon, shadowed by grim, cold 
clouds ; and the night was upon me, seven 
miles from camp, with many marshes between 
and not a road nor cow path, alone ; too light 
clad for the night's chill. Casting about for 
directions and landmarks I began the lonely 
trip, and long before the dark line of ridges 
was reached there was utter darkness. Now 
I had come upon a marsh, hip-deep of 
water and saw-grass. Through it I waded, 
fearing to lose the way should I deviate. 
At length the hills were reached, bestrewn 
with great boulders, among which was diffi- 
cult walking, the prairie grass having been 
burned away by a recent fire. Against one 
of these great stones I stumbled, when from 
off its top flew an Eagle, fanning the night 
wind into my face, and disappearing from 
directly over me. For a moment could be 
heard the heavy beating pinions, and then 
all was still but the ever whistling night wind. 

Along this ridge and on and on 1 wandered, 
misguided by a red glow sent up against the 
cloud by a distant prairie fire. Lost ! and 
for a moment the cold chills crept up along 
my frame and a strong effort was necessary to 
compose the nerves. Then at length my 
foot struck a path which led me to the lake, 
where weary and worn I spent the few re- 
maining hours of that frosty night. 

Next day I was wheeling on across the 
prairies towards Spirit Lake, and the far 
sweeps of vision from occasional elevations 
were inspiring. Lying away to the west 
were the dim flats of Kossuth County. Not 
a sound, no shrubs for sighing winds; the 
wheels rolled muffled on the prairie grass. 
At one point, where the ground lay more 
rolling and dryer, were many Long-billed 
Curlews, the males guarding their nests, and, 
hovering near the wagon, uttering that pe- 
culiar mellow whistle so characteristic of the 
wild, free prairie. Soon 1 was delighted to 
see an old Curlew flutter from the horse's 
feet leaving the four speckled eggs exposed. 
Further on a mother Curlew led her mottled 
downy chicks from danger. 



Then a Marbled Godwit flew flapping from 
her nest of chocolate- colored eggs. In this 
locality a number of prairie wolves strolled 
leisurely along just out of gunshot. One 
sneaked away from a newly dug burrow. 
Now and then a jack rabbit sprung from its 
"set" to disappear like a spectre. Yellow- 
legs and Phalarope picked up their meal 
from the wet meadows ; while the flocks of 
Golden Plover that wheeled about over the 
burned tracts were the delight of a sportsman. 
Occasionally were fields of blue anemone. 

/. W, Preston. 

Baxter, Iowa. 

(To be continued.) 



Distribution of the Black-Crowned 
Night Heron in Illinois. 



y, E. Dickinson, No. 3. 

Summer resident ; abundant. Arrive April 
5th; leave October. Breeds in colonies in 
oak groves adjacent to swamps or creeks. 
Nest placed from 25 to 45 feet high — com- 
posed of dead sticks. Sets found from May 
I o to early June. Has found nearly hatched 
young and birds building in same colony on 
May 27th. Set, 4 to 5 ; 6 eggs average 2.10 
X 1.50; largest, 5.04 x 1.5 1, smallest, 1.99 x 
1.54 ; color of eggs, blue. Common names, 
« Qua bird," " Quak," " Shite Poke." 

7^ A, Gregory, No. 3. 

Summer resident. Not common. 

Breeds in colonies. 

Nests in second growth timber from 2 to 
3 feet high, of twigs loosely laid together. 
Eggs may be seen from below. 

Full sets found May 12. 

Sets, 3 to 5 ; 4 average. 

Measurements, 2.01 x 1.5 1, 2.04 x 1.52, 
2.00 X 1.50, 2.02 X 1.50. Average, 2.02 x 

Color, pale bluish green, but are much 
stained and dirty as incubation advances. 
W. E, Pratt, No. 6. 

June 30, 4 young. 

(As this is his only note of the nesting of 
this bird in Lake and Cook counties, we may 



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June, 1893.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



83 



conclude it is not common as a summer 
resident.) 

Z. IV, Nichols. No. 10. 

Summer resident. Has seen it at all times 
of the nesting season but has not as yet found 
a nest. 

Dr, A. C. Murchison. No. 16. 

Summer resident. Abundant in suitable 
localities. Breeds in a large colony in the 
northern part of the county. Nests in a 
large swamp, placed upon the tops of the 
marsh grass, which had been bent down until 
it laid upon the water, covering nearly ten 
acres. Variously composed, green nishes, 
cat tails, and grass in some, others of twigs 
and sticks brought from a grove nearly two 
miles away. From 3 to 10 in. high and 12 
to 18 in. diameter, nearly flat, very carelessly 
put together. 

Nest about June i. (About 120 doz. 
fresh eggs were taken from this place on this 
date by an egger.) Set 2 to 4 ; 3 average ; 
not more than 4 were found in any nest. 

Color when fresh is a greenish blue ; some- 
times quite blue, fading to a lighter shade 
when exposed to the sun a short time. 

A set of 3 measure 2.23 x 1.4 1, 2.08 x 
1.40, 2.36 x 1.43 ; another 2.21 x 1.53, 2.07 
X 1.47, 2.02 X 1.48 ; a set of 4, 2.05 x 1.47, 
2.02 X 1.51, 1.93 X 1.46, 2.02 X 1.48 ; a set 
of 3, 2.25 X 1.49, 2.01 X 1.49, 1.87 X 1.40. 
Average 15 eggs, 2.10 x 1.46 ; largest 2.36 x 
1.43 ; smallest 1.87 x 1.40. 

A, Hamfeldt, No. 18. 

Has not met it. Is sure it does not breed 
in a radius of 20 miles of Ottawa. 

R, AL Barnes, No. 25. 

Has never met it. Thinks it may be found. 

Vlrginius Chase, No. 25. 

Has not found, except as a migrant. (Has 
been taken in the county on " Spoon River" 
and " Indian Creek " fretjuently, but does 
not breed. — A.C.M.) 

W, S, Strode, M,D, No. n. 

Has not met it. 

W, S, Cobleigh, No. II, 

Summer resident. Arrives about the first; 



week of May ; found in small numbers. Not 
found breeding in 33. 

Is found along the Illinois river and 
marshes. 

Sets 3 to 4 ; eggs measure 2.15 x 1.45. 
Elliptical, pale bluish-green. 
W. E, Loucks, No. 34. 

Migrant. Not common ; has only found 
it in the spring. Does not think it breeds. 

D, S. Me ix sell. No. 36. 

Has not met it. 

G, C, Pearson, No. 40. 

Seen occasionally ; was formerly plentiful. 

Charles Wells, No. 45. 

Has not met it. 
\V, L.Jones, No. 75. 

Summer resident, from April 20 to Sept. 
10. Common in the bottom lands and 
swamps. Nests, but no notes taken. 

C. B. Vandercock, No. 77. 

Has not found it. 

y, C, Elliot, No. ^%, 

Has not met it. 

6^. W. Rear den. No. 92. 

Not known. 

O, Widmann, Old Orchard, Mo. 

Migrant. Near St. Ix)uis from April 16 
to 29. None later than May 5. 

Philo Smithy Jr. St. Louis. 

Has no experience with it. 

C, P, Foir, Wayland, Mo. 

Has never met it. 

Burtis Wilson, Davenport, Iowa. 

Summer resident ; common along stream?, 
and ponds sheltered by woods. 

Arrives last of April, leaves first of Sep- 
tember. Probably breeds. No good breed- 
ing place in vicinity. 

"O. <& or July and August, 1884. 

"List of Birds collected near St. I^uis, 
Mo.," Julius Hurter. 

"Black-Crowned Night Heron, summer 
sojourner." 

Ridgzvay, " Birds ascertained to breed 
at Mt. Carmel." Given by E. W. Nelson, 
in 1875, Bulletin of the Essex Institute. 

Black-Crowned Night Heron: Rare. 



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84 



ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. 18-N0.6 



E, W, Nelson, "Birds of Northeastern 
Illinois." Bulletin of the Essex Institute, 
Vol. III., December. 

Night Heron : " Common. Owing to its 
frequenting the almost impenetrable wild 
rice swamps, this species would be over- 
looked on a transient visit to their haunts. 
The first of July, 1874, I saw a few young of 
the year in the Calumet marshes, but it was 
not until June, 1876, that I learned anything 
regarding their habits in this State. The 
middle of this month, I visited Grass Lake, 
I^ke County, 111., some miles west of Wau- 
kegan. This "lake" is simply a widening 
of the Fox River, which flows through its 
centre producing a shallow lake about one 
mile wide and three miles long. While col- 
lecting near a large patch of this wild rice 
we were surprised to see a number of Night 
Herons arise from the interior of the patch 
and commence circling about, uttering hoarse 
cries. Upon examining the place we were 
still more surprised to find that the birds 
were breeding in this improbable location. 
During this and the following day we exam- 
ined, within an area of two acres, at least fifty 
nests of this species. They were all placed 
in the midst of particularly dense bunches of 
rice, the stiff, last year's stalks of which, con- 
verging slightly near the roots, formed a base 
for their support. The nests were well built 
structures, composed of innumerable small 
pieces of dead rice stalks, varying from two 
to ten inches in length. 

"The nests averaged from ten to fifteen 
inches in diameter at the top and from ten 
to thirty in depth. So firmly were they 
built that I several times stood upon a large 
nest, to take a more extended view, and did 
it but little damage. A few contained fresh 
eggs, and a few had young from one to ten 
days old, but the majority contained eggs 
with half-embryos. The parents exhibited 
great solicitude while we were in the vicinity, 
but were so cautious that we only succeeded 
in shooting two." 

Robert Kennicott. " Catalogue of Birds 



observed in Cook County, 111." Trans. 111., 
State Agric. Soc, L, 1853-55. 

Night Heron : A. nycticorax. (No re- 
marks made.) 

Robert Rldgway, " Catalogue of Birds 
of Illinois." Bulletin of the Illinois Museum 
of Natural History, vol. i. 

Black-Crowned Night Heron : " Resident 
southward, at least in mild winters ; summer 
sojourner northward. Known as Quak, 
Qwan Bird, etc." 

Everman. "Birds of Carroll Co., Ind." 

Night Heron : "Apparently a very rare mi- 
grant. On the evening of April 5, 1878, I 
shot a female in fine plumage at a small 
pond in Camden." 

The Black-Crowned Night Heron seems 
to be very generally distributed over the 
State as a summer resident, and very abun- 
dant in certain localities where suitable 
breeding places can be found. It is a win- 
ter resident in the southern part of the State, 
though the greater number winter much 
further south. The time of arrival is about 
the first week of April, and departure about 
the first of October or last of November. 
It is usually found in abundance wherever it 
is found during the breeding season, from its 
habits of nesting in large colonies, but dur- 
ing the nesting season it may travel thirty 
miles from the nest in search of food, large 
flocks coming from a swamp over twenty 
miles away to feed at a lake near this place 
(Kewanee) every night during the nesting 
season. So far I have knowledge of but four 
of these nesting places in the State : one in 
Winnebago County, one in Lake County, 
one in Henry and one in Kankakee counties. 
Two of these are built in trees and two on 
the grass in a marsh. 

The nests, when placed in trees, seem to 
be very carelessly made ; one observer notes 
that the eggs can be seen from below. 
When the nests are placed in a marsh they 
are very substantial affairs, however, and 
many of them will bear the weight of a man 
without great damage. 



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June, 1893.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



85 



The "town" in Henry County differs 
somewhat from the one described by Kenni- 
cott, as the Herons had broken down the 
tall marsh grass to the level of the water, 
over several acres of ground, forming a floor, 
and on this the nests were placed, over about 
three feet of water. When the nest is placed 
in trees, sticks are used in its construction, 
but almost anything is used in a marsh. 
Some were composed of sticks carried from 
a grove about a mile away, others of marsh 
grass, rushes, wild rice, stalks, etc. 

The nests were from three inches to one 
feet high, nearly flat topped and not well 
arranged. 

How many nests this " town " contained 
I do not know, but 120 dozen fresh eggs 
had been taken from it about a week before 
my visit. 

I did not find more than four eggs in any 
nest and two or three were by far the most 
common sets. 

When fresh the eggs are a beautiful bluish- 
green, but exposure to the sun bleaches 
them very rapidly to a very pale bluish, and 
in a set the first egg laid can readily be dis- 
tinguished from the eggs laid on the suc- 
ceeding days by its paler color. 

The eggs vary in size from 1.87 x 1.40 to 
2.36 X 1.43. However, eggs as broad as 1.53 
are sometimes found. 

The food consists of almost any kind of 
worms, shellfish, small fish, etc. 

" It is shot in great numbers in Winne- 
bago County on account of its destruction 
of young game fish." — Dickinson. 

Jl. C\ Murchisori. 



My Outfit. 



The strangest nesting place of a bird that 
I have ever seen was one of an English Spar- 
row, noticed last June. On a crossbar on a 
telegraph post hangs an old oil can, in the bot- 
tom of which is a rust-eaten hole, and through 
this the Sparrows found an entrance, made 
their nest, and raised their young without 
molestation, and undiscovered by any other 
person, though it was on the side of the rail- 
way and near the main street. — IV. L, K, 



So many articles have already been written 
about what a collector should encumber him- 
self with, that 1 may be scoffed at for sug- 
gesting the following : — 

Nevertheless the only outfit that I have 
found available, and the one which 1 use to 
the exclusion of all others, is that given below. 
To begin with, over my ordinary underwear 
I don a medium weight dark-colored woolen 
shirt. The one I use now is a black and 
grey check and has two large breast pockets. 
Next in order comes a pair of woolen panta- 
loons that are complete with four capacious 
pockets and a set of belt loops, six in num- 
ber. It will be found much safer to rivet 
these on or they will be liable to rip out. 
The pockets of my pants all have flaps to 
button down snug and thus prevent possible 
loss. 

For a belt I use one of heavy nisset leather 
with buckle riveted fast like a pistol belt. In 
fact, the one I am using now is an old holster 
belt I used on the plains. 

For shoes I use hand-sewed heavy calf 
that lace above the ankles and have tops 
large enough to admit the bottoms of my 
trousers. By wearing them in this way they 
answer the purpose of leggins which I avoid 
as a " delusion and a snare." 

An old dilapidated structure, of a doubtful 
color, with a jagged rim three inches across, 
answers for a hat, and as a coat I use my fall 
shooting coat, which I had made of water- 
proof canvas to button close about my throat. 

This coat is a jewel. 1 1 is perfection itself. 
You will understand and admit ( ?) this when 
I tell you it originated with myself and was 
built on my lines. Therefore, I find no fault 
with the coat. 

I don't know how many pockets 1 had put 
into this coat, but I do know there are none 
too many and there is room for no more. 
It is in these pockets that I^ carry the rest of 
my outfit, which consists of jack-knife, com- 
pass, matches, and folding drinking-cup. 



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My collecting boxes are subdivided cigar 
boxes lined with woolen blanketing. The 
appartments are then filled with cotton. I 
also carry some sheets of paper to wrap any 
birds I may secure, and a small tin box filled 
with bran. This latter I dust in the eyes 
and mouth and brush about the vent and 
the shot wound before plugging with cotton. 

As a collecting gun I have used of late 
years a single barrel, twelve gauge, semi- 
hammerless. This " swings '* just right and 
I prefer it to my double barrel for collecting 
purposes. It weighs just seven and a quarter 
pounds. I generally carry about a dozen 
shells loaded with " dust '* and a few loaded 
with larger shot. 

Last but not least comes the question of 
lunch. On this subject opinions must vary, 
and for my part I am willing that they should. 
When I am to be gone from daybreak until 
dark I carry a couple of boiled eggs and four 
slices of buttered bread. This is usually 
sufficient for my wants, but when it is not I 
stop at some farmhouse and regale myself on 
doughnuts and milk. Thus I travel. 

Arthur M, Farmer, 

Amoskeag, N.H. 



An Old-time Outing. 



At the time described in the following 
sketch, the Wild Turkey was still to be found 
in great numbers in certain parts of Illinois. 
The Virginia or Red Deer was also at this time 
to be found, but in greatly reduced numbers. 
At the present time probably not a dozen 
Wild Turkeys can be found within a radius 
of ten miles and the Deer has been extinct 
for many years. It is with a feeling of regret 
that the writer recalls the fact that he con- 
tributed his mite towards exterminating this 
noblest of America's game birds. Between 
the year 1863 and 1875 ^^^ ^^^s than three 
hundred 'lurkeys fell victims to his wood- 
craft and marksmanship. 

Perhaps not even in their palmiest days, 
could the famous hunting grounds of Ten- 



nessee and Kentucky excel those of Central 
Illinois for their abundance of wild game. 
A half century ago, the valley of the Illi- 
nois river, with its tributaries the Sangamon, 
Spoon, and Rock rivers, simply teemed with 
Deer, Turkey and smaller game. 

There was one particular locality, to which 
this article will be confined, that was espe- 
cially a paradise for the hunter and sports- 
man. It was called "California Bend," and 
was formed by the junction of the Spoon 
with the Illinois river. In the angle formed 
by these streams grew one of the finest for- 
ests in the United States. The trees were 
principally of the shell-bark hickory and the 
pecan, along with more or less of the water 
elm, sycamore, ash and silver- leaved maple. 
Underneath and in the more open spaces were 
thickets of persimmon bushes, and around 
the little lakes the pawpaw, the only repre- 
sentative of the fniits of the tropical south 
found growing in the northern clime, was also 
to be found in considerable numbers. 

Thompson's I^ke, five miles long and one 
mile in average breadth, bounded this forest 
on the north. 

In the fall of the year the Wild Turkeys 
would flock to this bottom region and, feast- 
ing upon the pecans, wild grapes and the 
abundance of insect life, would grow very fat. 

Many years ago, when yet in his teens, 
the writer accompanied by his father and 
a neighbor named Cameron, both famous 
hunters and dead shots with the rifle, resorted 
to this " Bend " for a three days hunt. Arriv- 
ing just at sunset after a drive of twenty 
miles we camped for the night in close prox- 
imity to an immense sycamore, known to 
many hunters who had visited this region 
as the " great bee tree." The time was early 
in November, and the weather was pleasant 
and the evening balmy. Tents were not so 
common then as now, but having plenty of 
blankets and comforters with us, we soon 
improvised a very satisfactory shelter; fas- 
tening a couple of blankets along the top 
side of a great fallen tree trunk and pegging 



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the lower side to the ground and stopping 
up the rear opening with branches of trees, 
and then, with a great roaring fire in front 
and a bed of leaves a foot thick to spread 
our quilts upon, we felt independent of the 
weather. After supper we retired early, that 
we might be thoroughly rested and out be- 
times in the morning for a big day's work. 
But it was a long while before sleep came to 
our eyes ; the great trees roaring overhead, the 
hickory nuts rattling down in every direction, 
the honk I konk ! of the wild Geese and 
the more low whispering notes of the Ducks 
as they wended their way to the lake, and 
last but not least a serenade by a pair of 
those strange, ghoulish creatures, the Barred 
Owl, who never fails to visit a camp-fire in 
the deep woods, and where two or three of 
them, by their great variety of notes, would 
lead a novice to suppose that there was at 
least a score or more. 

We had come prepared to down this great 
tree, bringing with us two sharp axes, a cross- 
cut saw, a barrel, buckets, etc., and at day- 
break in the morning the axes were ringing 
out merrily on the frosty air. The seniors 
of the party were skilful axemen and experts 
in felling trees, and yet it was high noon 
before the giant sycamore, over six feet in 
diameter and sound to the centre, came 
thundering to the ground, bearing with it 
several smaller trees that grew underneath. 
In those early days it was an unwritten law 
among the early settlers that the finder of a 
bee tree was entitled to the right to cut it 
and possess the bees and honey. As I re- 
marked before, this tree had been known to 
contain bees for several years, and more than 
a dozen different hunters had cut their ini- 
tials in its smooth bark. Yet on account 
of its immense size none cared to assume 
the task of cutting it down. The results 
amply rewarded us for the labor retjuired 
to fell the tree. After subduing the bees 
with smoke, we slabbed off a great sec- 
tion seven or eight feet long from one side 
of the fallen tree, and the amount of honey 



exposed to view greatly surprised us. Slices 
of well filled comb four feet long by two in 
depth were taken out. The barrel was filled 
full of comb and liquid honey dipped up 
from the cavity of the tree. 

Finishing up the bee tree, we ate our din- 
ners, to which the honey was quite a wel- 
comed addition, and at once i)re pared for 
an afternoon hunt. The seniors were armed 
with rifles and the writer with a light double- 
barreled shot gim. We were to hunt to the 
north of camp, Cameron to make a detour 
to the west. My father and I were to hunt 
together, bearing to the east, and we would 
rendezvous at the foot of Thompson's lake, 
distant about two miles. 

The Red and Gray Sipiirrels were barking 
all about us, but they were too small game 
for this occasion and did not interest us. A 
half mile from camp we struck Turkey signs. 

The leaves under the pecan trees were 
freshly scratched up, and evidently they were 
not far off. From the direction in which the 
leaves were scratched we soon determined 
the course in which the flock was travelling, 
and with guns ready for immediate use we 
stole along noiselessly in pursuit, with ears 
strained to catch the first sound, and eyes 
seeing everything that stirred in the thickets. 

Directly quit I quit I some distance in 
our front warned us that we were up to them 
and were discovered, but almost simultane- 
ously with the first warning notes of the rear 
guard, leader of the flock, my father's rifle 
leai)ed to his shoulder and rang out sharp 
and clear. The Turkeys flew and ran in 
every direction, but two or three knowing in 
which way the danger lay. One fine young 
gobbler, alighting in a tree off to the left, had 
scarcely folded his wings till he tumbled to 
the ground at the crack of my gun. 

My father's shot had also been effective, 
and picking up the two '1 urkeys we secreted 
ourselves between the trunks of a large double 
soft maple tree, that some tempest had torn 
up by the roots and blown to the ground. 
For about fifteen minutes everything was as 



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still as the grave. Then away off among the 
trees to the east of us, came the call note of 
of the Turkey, ceouk, ceouky at first in- 
distinct and low, and then louder and with 
more confidence. Producing a caller, made 
from the smaller bone of the first wing joint 
of the Turkey, my father placed it to his 
mouth and produced so good an imitation 
of the call notes of the Wild Turkey that an 
old hunter could not have told the difference. 
The call notes were now heard on all sides 
of us, and we could hear the Turkeys getting 
down out of the trees in every direction. In 
a short time we could hear them cautiously 
approaching the place where we lay con- 
cealed and after a few minutes of intense 
waiting aid watching several appeared in 
view, but the distance was too great yet for a 
sure shol. My father signed to me to hug 
the ground, and again his caller rang out 
ceouky ceouk, ceouk. 

They now approached more rapidly, and 
were soon at close enough quarters. Slowly 
and cautiously getting the ends of our guns 
over the log in our front, at once followed by 
just enough of our heads, with hats removed, 
to glance along the barrels, our guns spoke 
at once, and two more Turkeys were writhing 
and flapping in death's agony upon the ground. 

Again everything was quiet, and piling up 
our dead Turkeys we decided on a still hunt, 
each fellow for himself. Separating, we went 
in different directions, and although I flushed 
several Turkeys from the dense underbrush, 
they were too quick for me, and got away 
without injury. Hunting about for nearly 
an hour without success, I was about to give 
up the quest and return to our dead game, 
when a shot a quarter of a mile away rang 
through the woods, and in a few minutes 
afterwards three Turkeys lit down in an open 
space of the woods a hundred yards away. 
Concealing myself behind a tree I waited till 
they came within about sixty yards of me, 
and then gave them both barrels at once. 
Two of them again took to wing, but one 
remained flopping upon the ground. In a 



short time my father came up ; he had also 
secured another one. This made six out of 
the flock, which we estimated at about 
twenty. We had several times heard the 
report of Cameron's gun, but could only con- 
jecture in regard to what he was shooting. 
He now, however, put in an appearance, his 
eyes shining and his whole demeanor indi- 
cating excitement. He carried in one hand 
a Mallard Duck, and his first words were, 
" I got him." 

"Got what?" we interrogated, glancing 
rather contemptuously at his Duck. 

" The finest Buck in the Illinois bottom," 
he said. 

Gathering up our Turkeys we accompanied 
him to his game, about half a mile away. It 
was indeed a fine Buck, with great beautiful 
antlers. He was shot squarely through the 
body just behind the shoulders and had made 
only a few jumps before he fell dead. Hang- 
ing our game up to limbs of trees, we decided 
to go to camp, load up everything, and drive 
to the game, load it in the wagon, and then 
go on to the foot of the lake and camp for 
the night. This we did, selecting our camp- 
ing place just as the sun was going down. 
We were back in the timber about 200 yards 
from the edge of the lake, but could see 
glimpses of the water glistening through the 
trees. The noise and fuss of the water fowl 
we could plainly hear. Going out where we 
could have an unobstructed view we were 
surprised at the great numbers of water fowl. 

There were simply square acres of the 
lake's surface, covered with Ducks, Geese and 
Brant. Ixjwer down and at the water's t6gt 
on the opposite side there was a little flock 
of a half dozen Pelicans. They loomed up 
so large in the reflection of the setting sun 
that they appeared like small white boats, 
floating on the lake. 

The seniors of the party determined to 
try for a shot at them. Slipping back to the 
woods they went down the lake until they 
got a large log lying near the water, be- 
tween them and the Pelicans. 



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Dropping down on their hands and feet, 
they crawled to this shelter, and then, lying 
on their stomachs, took a long and careful 
aim at the great birds. 

At the crack of. their rifles all the birds 
arose on the wing except one, whose head 
fell forward in the water, and after swimming 
about in a circle for a few seconds, lay still 
in death. 

The report of the guns, as it reverberated 
over the water, caused thousands of Ducks 
and Cieese to take to wing; the air was 
black in every direction with great circling 
flocks. Dropping down in the thick flag 
my opportunity soon came, and as a big 
flock of Mallards came circling over me I 
arose to my feet, and bang ! bang ! each 
report followed by a Duck tumbling headlong 
to the earth. When the Pelican was ob- 
tained it was found to be shot through the 
body at the butt of the wings. It was a 
wonderful shot; the distance was greater 
than 200 yards. Each party claimed that it 
was the other that killed the Pelican, and 
to this day (they are both yet living, very 
aged) they will have it that way. 

It was now night, and we busied our- 
selves cooking supper, of which venison steak 
formed a part, dressing the game, which con- 
sisted in removing the entrails of the fowls 
killed and putting a handful of salt on the 
inside. 

The Deer was half skinned, and treated in 
the same manner. By the lime supper was 
over and the camp for the night made com- 
fortable, we were ready for something else. 
An outing to this famous region was never 
considered complete without a Coon hunt. 

We had provided for this sport by bring- 
ing with us two good dogs, somewhat noted 
for their skill in hunting the Tree Fox. So 
far we had kept them chained in camp, partly 
to guard it and partly because, if allowed to 
go with us when hunting Deer and Turkey, 
they would be all the time treeing Squirrels, 
and would frighten away the larger game by 
their noise. 



We were now ready for a Coon hunt, and 
the two dogs were more anxious to be off 
than we were. 

Going around to the north side of the 
lake where the fishermen had been hauling 
their great seines we rightly supposed the 
Racoons would be allured to this side, to 
feed upon the refuse fish that lay along the 
shore. We had scarcely gotten well upon 
good Coon ground till the dogs announced 
something treed. A few minutes work with 
our axes on the leaning, soft maple brought 
it crashing to the ground, and a minute after 
a terrible battle was going on between our 
dogs and a large Coon ; but our canines 
were experts in this kind of business and 
soon had put a quietus on Mr. Procyon 
lotor. Suffice it to say that we returned to 
camp, after tramping four or fv\t miles, bear- 
ing with us three large and fat Coons. We 
were thoroughly tired after our day's work, 
but so well pleased with its results that we 
scarcely thought of the fatigue. 

As we crawled into our bunks the wind 
was whistling and moaning through the trees, 
the sky was overcast with threatening clouds, 
and the weather was growing colder every 
minute. Winter was evidently going to 
break in upon us, and sure enough at day- 
break next morning it came with a regular 
blizzard, — snow, rain and sleet all mixed up 
together. 

We had intended staying over another 
day. At daybreak the seniors of the party 
started to do up some more of the Turkeys, 
while I was left to guard camp and shoot 
Ducks, and shoot them I did ; they were 
flying through the air so fast that, after kill- 
ing about a dozen, I desisted, deeming it 
useless to slaughter so many ; besides I had 
hard work to keep my fingers from freezing 
in loading and handling the cold gun. 

In an hour or two the Turkey hunters 
came back, having killed but one, which fell 
to Cameron's gun. They announced that 
hunting in such a storm was no good, and 
after a council we all decided that home was 



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the best place for us. We at once hitched 
up and decamped, and in spite of the bliz- 
zard which we had to face, we were as merry 
a little party as ever came to the " Califor- 
nia IJend." What a paradise to the hunter 
and naturalist was this region in those days. 

What a change has come over it now. 
This fall, in October, I visited it again. The 
great forest of hickory and pecan is nearly 
all cut away. 

Immense fields of corn were waving 
where once the wild denizens of the woods 
had full sway. Two railroads ran through 
" California Bend." 

Not much is left of its original wild splen- 
dor. The lake is still there, teeming with 
thousands of fish, and the water fowl still 
come, but in greatly reduced numbers. 

H^. S. Strode, M D, 

Lewiston, 111. 

Nesting of Gambers Quail in the 
Colorado Desert. 



Gambel's Partridge {callipcpla gambeli) 
is one of the very few game birds which in- 
habit the ' desert exclusively, and for this 
reason they are not likely to become exter- 
minated for a long time, as is the case with 
many others, for there are few sportsmen 
however ardent, who care to take a hunting 
trip over the scorching sands of the desert, 
when game etjually palatable is to be found 
at their very doors. 

It was my good fortune to take a trip over 
the Colorado Desert this spring, and for the 
first time in my life I saw the beautiful Gam- 
bel's Quail at home. 

Starting from Julian, San Diego Co., Cali- 
fornia, we descended the east side of the 
mountains, and after a day's travel found 
ourselves on the edge of the desert. From 
here we traveled for three days over rocky 
and sandy roads and trails, until we arrived 
at Fish Springs, not far from the edge of the 
great Sal ton Sea, which caused so much anx- 
iety two years ago by threatening to, and in 
fact it did, overflow its banks, and cover the i 



tracks of the Southern Pacific R.R. and en- 
danger the works of the salt company at 
Salton. The spring is a circular hole about 
thirty feet across and of unknown depth, the 
usual story of a bottomless pit being applied 
to it. It receives its name from the fact that 
in it live numbers of tiny fish from one to 
two inches long. The water is rather alkaline 
and impregnated with sulphur. 

The next day we entered the Mesquites, 
and here, for the first time, met the object of 
our search, Gambel's Quail. 

We were first made conscious of the bird's 
presence by hearing its familiar call. I say 
familiar, for it is very similar to that of the 
Valley Partridge, so common about home. 

I made off in the direction of the sound, 
and soon saw a pair of the birds run into a 
thick Mesquite bush. Any one who is fa- 
miliar with a Mesquite thicket will know why 
I did not follow. For the sake of those who 
are unacquainted with the plant, I would say 
that going through them is much like going 
through a thicket of briers with thorns an 
inch long, and thorns that will not bend or 
break either. They come as near being like 
a thicket of thorny locust trees as anything 
else I can think of. Well, I decided to go 
around that Mesquite bush, and did so just 
in time to see one of the birds dive into the 
next. I fired at its retreating form, and was 
gratified at hearing a heavy fluttering under 
the brush. By crawling on hands and knees, 
I succeeded in pulling it out, a fine male. 
Soon afterward I killed a female, which, upon 
skinning, was found to contain a well-devel- 
oped egg. During the afternoon I succeeded 
in taking two specimens of Phainopepla 
( Ph a in op epla n etcus ) . 

That night we camped at Acjua Dulce 
(Spanish words meaning " Sweet Water") . I 
do not know why it is so called, for the water 
is only a little less salty and sulphury than 
the other watering places on the desert. 

As I was starting out, just at sundown, in 
search of a suitable place to set my traps, 
for I was collecting both birds and mammals. 



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I flushed a bird from beneath a small bush 
about a foot high. 

P>xamination revealed a depression in the 
ground in which rested eight creamy white 
eggs, blotched with brown and lilac. I left 
them undisturbed, hoping to find a full set 
and get the parent bird on my return. Two 
days later, when I again visited the spot, the 
eggs were as I left them and the parent no 
where in sight, so I was forced to take the 
incomplete set. This was on April 5, which 
I think is about the proper date to look for 
eggs of this species. 

At W-alter's station, on the Southern Pa- 
cific R.R., 1 found Gambel's Quail quite 
plentiful and succeeded in taking four more 
specimens, which, with some taken on the 
home trip, made a total of nine skins, and 
one incomplete set of eggs the result of the 
trip. 

Gambel's Quail is slightly smaller than 
the Valley Quail {callipcpla califormca 
valIicoIa)y with a brown crown instead of 
the ashen gray of the latter. On the breast 
is a heavy smoky patch which takes the place 
of the beautifully mottled breast of the Valley 
species. The whole tone of the bird is lighter, 
the plume being nearly jet black. The spe- 
cies ranges in this Slate as far north as San 
Gorgon io Pass, where it hybridizes with the 
Valley Partridge. It also extends through 
Arizona and New Mexico, but always is found 
in the vicinity of water. Generally it is shyer 
than the Valley Quail, but I consider a week's 
trip after them worth a month's with the 
latter. Fred, W, Koch, 

Twin Oaks, California. 



J. Parker Norris has added to his cabinet 
a fine set of four eggs of the Duck Hawk, 
tiiken on Mount Tom, Mass., on May 6, 
1893, by H. W. Smith. They are beautiful 
specimens. 

The Condor, when rising from the earth, 
always describes circles in the air, and can 
rise in no other way. 



Malformations in Birds. 



Numerous instances of malformations in 
birds and mammals have been brought to 
my notice, but I have never seen a case, 
aside from this one, in which the capacity 
of the mouth was curtailed in the slightest 
degree. We are all familiar with the gap- 
ing mouths of young birds in the nest, and 
it would seem to an obsener that the chief 
aim of these nestlings was to open the beak 
to the widest extent and engulf the food 
brought to them by the old birds. Yet if 
one will but recall the manner of feeding 
the young in the case of the common Turtle 
Dove, passenger Pigeon and domestic Pigeon, 
it will be quickly seen that a wide distension 
of the mandibles is not always necessary. 
The young of these species secures its sus- 
tenance from the crop of the parent birds. 
The food taken by the old birds is mace- 
rated and mixed with a milky substance, 
and is then regurgitated into the mouth of 
the nestling, as all have observed. This 
peculiar process gives rise to the not inapt 
term " sucking doves." 

One day when hunting for specimens in 
the month of June I saw two Turtle or Mourn- 
ing Doves, evidently a pair, feeding in a 
field, and quickly detected a marked pe<;u- 
liarity in the manner of one of them. The 
oddity would not pick up its food in the 
usual manner of Doves, but invariably 
dropped its head on the right side and 
seemed to scoop up the substance. After 
watching it for a time, I shot it. It was a 
healthy, well-nourished female, and had re- 
cently been setting, as absence of abdominal 
feathers proved, and at the time had young 
undoubtedly, as indicated by the condition 
of the crop. 

The whole left side of its bill was closed 
by a tenacious yet elastic tissue which held 
the mandibles together. This tissue also 
covered the lip of the bill and extended 
three sixteenths of an inch back from the 
tij) on the right side. On the left side there 



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was but slight enlargement at any part, but 
the region about the nostril was somewhat 
corrugated. On the right side the imper- 
fect mandibles were exceedingly delicate 
and slender, and more resembled the scjuab 
bill than that of an adult bird. The open- 
ing to the mouth was over five eighths of an 
inch in length, and could be spread by a 
little pressure to slightly over one fourth of 
an inch, though it may be doubted if the 
bird could distend it to this width. Nature, 
which had so oddly formed this bill, had 
evidently endeavored to make amends for the 
deformity by giving great mobility to the i)arts. 
It is singular that a bird in this condition 
should have reached maturity, but it is most 
remarbable that it should rear young. One 
point is evident to all ; no species outside 
of the Pigeon family could receive or furnish 
nourishment when in this condition. 

jyforris Gibbs, M,D. 

Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

— i^»^ 

~ A Few Facts about the Turkey 
Buzzard. 



During the last two months I have been 
travelling through the Southern Atlantic 
States; and being fortunate in having my 
own private car, I was better able to learn 
the following facts about the Turkey Buzzard. 

For fear some may think me negligent in 
not giving the Latin name of this bird, I will 
freely confess that my knowledge of CiXsar's 
language is confined to that gentleman's first 
three books, and I do not think that the 
Turkey Buzzard is mentioned therein. 

The Buzzard is justly named the scaven- 
ger, and it was only a few years ago these 
birds ridded the Washington market of much 
of its garbage. 

The first noticeable characteristic is the 
flight. The wings are seldom flapped, the 
bird soaring for long intervals with scarcely 
any exertion. It often seemed as if it would 
fall sideways over on its back as it gracefully 
swayed one way and then another. As it 
swayed from side to side away up in the sky, 



it strongly reminded me of a ship rolling in 
a heavy swell. Its powers for making head- 
way in a wind are not great, and it is com- 
pelled to beat one way and then another in 
order to make any progress. I once noticed 
one on a windy day crossing a small field, 
and where many other birds would have 
quickly vanished it took the Buzzard a long 
time to cover two hundred yards. It is 
forced to run some distance before being able 
to rise from the ground. On the ground it is 
extremely awkward. 

They are easy of approach when gorged, 
and hesitate to leave their food ; sometimes, 
however, I have been unable to get near 
them. I have seen many carcasses from 
which odors of all degrees emanated, but 
which had been left untouched by the Buz- 
zards ; this I cannot account for. When any 
offal is discovered by one of these birds, it 
soars high above, sinking gradually; their 
eyesight must be powerful, as himdreds will 
soon see the lucky one and gather around 
to partake. The eyes of any dead animal 
seem to be the favorite morsel, as they are 
always the first to be picked out. 

R, H, White, Jr, 

Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

•^•^ 

Nesting Habits of the Great Horned 

Owl. 



It appears to be generally believed by 
ornithologists and oologists that the Great 
Horned Owl will occupy the same nest for a 
number of years, even after being frequently 
molested. Although my experience is some- 
what limited, owing to the scarcity of that 
specie in this locality, as only fi\t nests have 
come under my observation, it does not es- 
tablish the fact to the contrary, and yet it 
has been my misfortune in every case to find 
it otherwise. 

My first was an open nest in a large beech 
tree, and contained three young Owls when 
found. They were left in the nest to mature 
unmolested, with the hopes of collecting a 
set of eggs there the following season. The 



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June, 1893.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



93 



next spring I visited the nest frequently, 
but no owls appeared in that locality. 

My second was an open nest in a beech 
tree and contained two young Owls, about 
half- grown when found. They were allowed 
to mature in the nest unmolested, and in the 
following spring the nest was unoccupied. 

The third and fourth were both open nests 
and found by Albert and Elmer Durfee. 

From one of these nests they took a set of 
three eggs and the other contained young 
birds, which were left in the nest undisturbed. 

I visited both of these nests the following 
spring and found them unoccupied, and no 
Owls could be seen in the woods. 

The fifth nest was found by myself, situ- 
ated in a hole in the side of a basswood tree, 
from which I took a set of two fresh eggs on 
March 20, 1892 ; and up to the present date, 
March 24, 1893, there is no appearance of 
the Great Horned Owl occupying the same 
cavity this spring, 

I should like to hear from other collectors 
with more extended experience on this sub- 
ject, so that we might be able to ascertain 
what proportion of (ireat Horned Owls' nests 
found, have been occupied the following 
season. James B, Pt4rd)\ 

Plymouth, Michigan. 

*«fc 

Notes on Arkansas Flycatchers in 

Towner County, North Dakota. 



I^st season I took notes of two nests of 
the Arkansas Flycatcher. It was the first in 
my three years' collecting here that this 
species was noted, and the fact of their nest- 
ing here the same year added a double in- 
terest to me. The first time I saw them 
was June 12, and my attention was attracted 
by their cries, and it is a peculiar cry they 
have, too ; once heard, not easily forgotten. 
This pair was seen and heard nearly every 
day, and we noted them looking in all sorts 
of places for a spot to build, which they finally 
did the last of the month. The site they 
finally selected was on an old binder that 
stood within ten rods of the school -house 



where from twenty to thirty children were 
playing every day. 

The nest and eggs were taken July 5, by 
E. S. Bryant, of Phoenix, N.Y., who was 
collecting here at the time. The nest con- 
tained three eggs, which were fresh. The 
set was not complete, or at least I did not 
think so, but Mr. B. was to leave for home 
the next day and he wanted them. This 
pair of birds left and did not return to the 
vicinity again. 

I took the other set July 16. The nest 
was placed on a part of the wind- mill pump 
at the railroad station and was within reach 
of my hand from the ground. The nest was 
bulky and composed of various materials, 
this set was complete, four eggs ; incubation 
one half or more. This nest was seen by 
Mr. B. just before he left and we thought 
that it was the same pair of birds building a 
second nest. I did not go near them, with 
one exception, until 1 went to get the eggs, 
as I did not wish . to call any attention to 
them. From the closeness of the dates of 
the two sets of eggs, there must have been 
two pair of birds when we had noticed but one. 
It seems strange that these birds should 
have chosen such exposed places when they 
are usually credited with being very shy. 

Several pair were seen on the shores of 
Devil's I^ke, but none were seen at Turtle 
Mountain during the season. 

In January issue of " O. & O." Mr. James 
B. Purdy writes of the breeding of the 
Canada Geese in captivity as sometliing 
rather unusual. 1 know of several flocks 
here. I have seen one goose raise two 
broods. The first year, 1891, she laid and 
hatched four eggs and raised them to ma- 
turity. She was then three years old. I^st 
' season the same goose laid twelve eggs ; 
I eleven hatched, one ^g% was unfertile. I'en 
I goslings were raised and are now alive. 
I They run out in all kinds of weather, but 
' are protected nights and have plenty of 
, care. Can give fuller particulars if required. 
I Elmer F, Judd, 



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94 



ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. 18-N0. 6 



THE 



ORNITHOLOGlSTp^^OOLOGIST 

A MONTHLY UACAZINE OP 

NATURAL HISTORY, 

ESPECIALLY DEVOTED TO THE STUDY OF 

BIRDS, 

THEIR NESTS AND EGGS, 

AND TO THE 

INTERESTS OF NATURALISTS. 

Under the Exlitorial Management of 
FRANK. B. WEBSTER, . . Hyde Park. Mass. 

J. PARKER NORRIS, . . . Philadelphia, Pa. 



PUDUSHED AT THE 

MUSEUM AND NATURALISTS' SUPPLY DEPOT 

OF THE 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY, 

INCORPORATED, 

HYDE PARK, MASS. 



The (). & O. IS mailed each issue to every paid subscriber. 
If you fail to receive it, notify us. 



Editor of ''O S or: 

I have tried your new auxiliary barrel, and 
found it exceeded my highest expectations 
for shooting. It throws dust shot with force 
enough to kill large birds at seventy-five feet, 
and does not shoot small birds to pieces. J 
also find it a great saving in ammunition. 

//. Z. Monleux, 

Fresno, Cal. 

I took a fine specimen of Richardson's 
Owl the 20th of February, the first I have 
ever seen here, although I have heard of such 
an Owl being seen. 

Other bird life consisting of flocks of Snow 
Flakes, now and then a White Owl and a 
few Sharp- tail Grouse. Elmer T. Judd. 



Finds. 



March 25, Great Horned Owl, 3 eggs, in 
white oak ; April 9, Crow, 5 eggs, in soft 
maple ; April 9, While-rumped Shrike, 3 
eggs, in osage; April 12, Crow, 5 eggs. 

Ca rl Eritz- Hen n ing, 

Boone, Iowa. 

Please send us notes of your collecting 
trips. They will be welcome. 



An American Egret was shot by E. W. 
Champlin, in cedar swamp, Ocean View, 
R.T., first of June. C. G, Dunn. 

We received in March a Pig. It had i 
head, 4 ears, 2 bodies, 8 legs — a perfect 
darling. C. K, Reed, 

Worcester, Mass. 



Editor of O. ^ O." ; 

This morning I took down the key to my 
"museum," which has been closed since 
November, when I finished arranging the 
results of my summer's collecting. I opened 
up the room, dusted out, looked to my nests 
and eggs to see if they were all right, and 
examined my bird skins to see that none 
were spoiled. Then I got down my note- 
book and journal and started to look over 
them. Before I had got very far, I remem- 
bered that it had been some lime since I had 
written to the " O. & O.," so I picked up a 
few sheets of paper and commenced looking 
for items of interest. 

I did not do much collecting last season. 
To commence with, I sprained my ankle 
just about the time the birds commenced 
laying, and was only able to do a little col- 
lecting around the cemeteries. 

April 17, as I was going along one of our 
principal streets, a bird came fluttering down 
on top of my head. I was rather surprised 
on looking down to behold a Least Bittern. 
As it was flying over it had stnick one of the 
tall buildings. This is a rare bird for this 
vicinity, this being the only one I ever found, 
or rather the only one that ever found me. 

June 17, found a Blue-gray Gnatcatcher's 
nest about two miles south of the city. It 
was in the crotch of a young oak tree about 
10 feet from the ground. It contained 
young. 

I found eight nests of Cioldfinch, only one 
contained eggs, however. This is the largest 
number ever found by me in one season. 

December 9, saw a Chipping Sparrow in 
a tree in the park. \\\ E, MuUikcn. 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 



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June, 1893.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



95 



Poor Datas. 



I have got just a few words I want to say 
in relation to this important subject, and 
this time it is not the young collector as 
much as the older one that is at fault. My 
experience has been that the men that have 
had the most experience write the poorest 
datas. 

I have during the last few seasons (and 
probably a lot of my brother collectors can 
sympathize with me) received datas from 
quite a number of the different States, and I 
tell you they are a curiosity in themselves. 
Some of them would puzzle a lawyer to tell 
what State the nest was found in, to say 
nothing of getting any nearer to the bird*s 
place of abode. 

Now, gentlemen, do not think because 
you are familiar with the names of your 
different lakes, ponds, flats, different kinds 
of trees, bushes, etc., that every other col- 
lector in the wide world is also. 

Now here is one before me, written for a 
set of American Coot. Yes, I guess they 
were taken in California, I can make that 
out, but that is as near as I can get to it. 
Now California is quite a large State, and 
sometimes it would be a great convenience 
to know whether they were taken in the 
northern or southern part. 

Here is another one written for a set of 
White-rumped Shrike. There is no number 
on it, no set mark, and when they come to 
the most important part of the data (the 
description of the nest), they write, as large 
as life : " Nest in a shade tree accompanying 
eggs.'* 

Now that collector forgets that we were 
not with him when that set was taken. We 
do not know whether it was in a birch or a 
pine tree, whether it was in the heart of a 
great city or in some wild barren woods ; 
whether it was six feet high or sixty, and it 
would be hard to tell whether the nest or 
the tree went with the set ; but as the tree 
was not sent, I suppose it meant the nest. 



Now all of this trouble could be easily 
avoided by a little care. Do not write a 
data so that whoever receives it has got to 
guess at the larger part of it. Take time. 
Write them plainly. Give all the details in 
regard to the nest that the data will allow, 
and I feel satisfied that you will receive the 
blessing of every collector that has any 
dealings with you. 

Charles S. Butters. 

Haverhill, Mass. 



Large Eggs of the Field Sparrow. 



In reviewing some back volumes of the 
"O. & O.,*' I noticed the article in November 
number, 1888, "Remarkable eggs of the 
Field Sparrow," by Mr. J. P. Norris, in which 
he records an unusually large tgg^ measuring 
•79X.55. It is one of a set of three, the 
others being of normal size. 

I have in my collection a still larger set, 
both in size and number, it being a set of 
^\t collected by me June 9, 1884. All of 
the eggs in this set are abnormally large, 
measuring as follows : .81 x .55 ; .80 x .54 ; 
•Sox. 53; .77X.51; .75X. 51. The nest 
was built in a hazlenut bush, two feet from 
the ground, in a bushy pasture. 

To illustrate the great variation in size 
and shape of the eggs of this species I will 
give the measurements of a set of four col- 
lected May 26, 1 89 1, the nest just raised 
from off the ground in a bunch of goldenrod : 
.62X.52; .63X.52; .64X.50; .67X.52. 

This is one of our most common birds in 
the breeding season, and displays as much 
variation in the situation of the nest as in 
their eggs. I have found them on the ground 
under a small bush or bunch of weeds, barely 
raised from the ground in a tussock of grass 
or small bush ; also to the height of ^\t feet 
in a bush or brier. I remember one nest 
built in a bush under a large tree in a heavy 
piece of woodland, but they are generally 
situated in a scrubby, bushy field. 

G, Z. //. 

Bethel, Conn. 



Digitized by 



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SPECIAL PRICES FOR 1893. 



POSTAGE MUST BE ADDED. 

The average postage on a cigar box of Eggs is 16 cents. 



A.O.U. Nos. 




139 

140 


3 Horned Grebe 


$020 


4 American Eared Grebe 


13 


141 


^ St. Domingo Grebe 


20 


142 


is Pied-billed Grebe 


6 


143 

144 


7 Loon 


80 


9 Black-throated Loon 


75 


146 


II Red-throated Loon 


50 


^SI 


12 Tufted PulHn 


5« 


^S2 


13 Puffin 


12 


'54 


27 Black Guillemot . 


20 


^S5 


29 Pigeon Guillemot 


40 


159 


30 Murre ..... 


12 


160 


30a California Murre . 


15 


167 


31 Brunnich's Murre 


15 


169a 


31a Pal las' s Murre 


40 


[171] 


;^2 Razor-billed Auk . 


12 


172 


35 ^*^"a 


40 


172a 


37 Parasitic Jaeger 


35 


177 


40 Kittiwake .... 


20 


[179] 


42 Glaucous Gull 


60 


182 


47 Great Black-backed Gull 


25 


'83 


49 Western (iull 


20 


184 


51 Herring (iull 


15 


186 


51a American Herring Gull 


10, 1S7 


'^3 California Gull 


15 ! 188 


54 Ring-billed Gull . 


15 190 


[56] Mew Gull .... 


15 191 


58 Laughing Gull 


12 192 


^9 Franklin's Gull 


20 193 


63 Gull-billed Tern . 


10 , 194 


64 Caspian Tern 


30 [195] 


65 Roval Tern .... 


20 


196 


67 Cabot's Tern 


• 18 


197 


69 Forster's Tern 


10 


198 


70 Common Tern 


5 


199 


71 Arctic Tern .... 


5 


200 


72 Roseate Tern ... 


12 


201 


74 Least Tern .... 


5 


202 


7^ Sootv Tern .... 


15 


203 


[7(5] Bridled Tern 


75 ' ::o7 


77 Black Tern .... 


8 208 


79 Noddy ..... 


iS 


21 1 


80 Black Skimmer 


8 


212 


86 Fulmar ..... 


30 


[2>3] 


[90] Manx Shearwater . 


40 


^'4 


92 Audubon's Shearwater . 


75 


[^■7] 


104 Storm V Petrel 


30 218 


106 Le.ich's Petrel 


15 219 


117 Gannet 


25 ! [220] 


118 Anhinga .... 


15 1 221 


119 Cormorant .... 


15 ! 223 


120 Double-crested Cormorant . 


15 : 224 


1 20a Florida Cormorant 


20 , 22!^ 


122 Brandt's Cormorant 


25 226 


123b Baird's Cormorant 


2^ 228 


125 American White Pelican 


20 


[■!i9] 


126 Brown Pelican 


15 


230 


128 Man-o'-War Bird . 


S(J 


[243] 


129 American Merganser 


60 


■!49 


130 Red-breasted Merganser 


20 2^2 


132 Mallard .... 


io;[25S] 


133 Black Duck .... 


25:L26o] 


[138] European Teal 


8 


261 



Green-winged Teal 
Blue- winged Teal . 
Cinnamon Teal 
Shoveller 
Pintail . ' . 
Wood Duck . 
Redhead 

American Golden-eye 
Barrow's Golden-eye 
Old-squaw 
Harlequin Duck . 
Cireenland Eider . 
American Eider 
Ruddy Duck . 
Greater Snow Goose 
White-fronted Goose 
Canada Goose 
Hutch in's Goose . 
Black-bellied Tree-duck 
I Whooping Swan . 
American Flamingo 
Roseate Spoonbill 
White Ibis . 
Glossy Ibis . 
White-faced Glossy Ibis 
Wood Ibis . 
American Bittern . 
Least Bittern 
Great White Heron 
Ward's Heron 
Great Blue Heron . 
European Blue Heron 
American Egret 
Snowy Heron 
Reddish Egret 
Louisiana Heron . 
Little Blue Heron 
Green Heron 

Black-crowned Night Heron 
Yellow-crowned Night Heron 
Limpkin 
King Rail 
Clapper Rail . 
\'irginia Rail 
Spotted Crake 
Sora 

Corn Crake . 
Purple Gallinule . 
Florida Gallinule . 
European Coot 
American Coot 
Northern Phalarope 
Wilson's Phalarope 
American Avocet . 
Black-necked Stilt 
American Woodcock 
European Snipe . 
Wilson's Snipe 
Dunlin . 
Marbled Godwit 
Black-tailed Godwit 
Willet . 
Ruff 
Bartramian Sandpiper 



40 
10 

15 
20 

24 
60 

15 
60 

35 
25 
60 

25 
10 

30 
2 00 

9C3 

75 

75 

1 00 

I 03 

3« 
30 

75 
75 
40 

15 
90 

30 
'5 
15 
20 

15 

25 

8 

8 

8 

6 

15 

50 

10 

10 

10 

15 

5 

10 
20 

5 
10 

5 
35 
60 

50 
45 
75 
18 
I 00 
25 



12 

25 



Digitized by 



Google 



265 Spotttird Sandpiper 
[367] WhiinbreJ 
[^69] Lapwing 
[271] Golden Plover 
273 KiMdeer 
27s Ring Plover . 
{J7fi] Lit tit Rfnjiii Plover 
277 Piping Plover 

Wilsion's Plover . 

Mountain Plover . 

Ovbter-catcher 

Atnencan Oyster-catcher 

Bolvwhite * . 

Florida Bob-nhite 

Texan Bob-white . 

Mountain Partridge 

Plumed Partridge * 

Scaled Partridge , 

C he sit n ul*beil ied Sea led Partridge 
£^94] California Pariridtje 
2q^a \'alle\ Partridge . 

Gambrel's Partridge 

R II lied GroiiKe 

W i I low Pta rm 1 gaii 

Prairie Hen . 
308a Cohimb. Sharp-miled Grouse 
^09 Sa^^e tiro use . 

Wild Turkey 

Chat-haloca' , 

Band-tailed Pigeon 

Red-billed Pigeon 

PaKseiii^er Pigeon 

Mourning Dove . 

White-fronted Dove 

W h i te- w I n ged Do v e 

Ground Dove 

Tiirkey Vulture 

Blat:k Vulture 

Mit^sisKippi Kite * 

Mar^U Hawk 

Sharp-Shinned Hawk 

Coo per V Hawk 

Harri*i's Huwk 
(336] European Buzzord 
337 Red-tailed Hawk . 

Western Red-tail * 

Red-shouidered Hawk 

White- tailed Hawk 

Swain son's Hawk 

Broad-winged IJawk 
[347] Rongh-Iegged Hawk 
349 Golden Eagle 
[351] Gray Sea Eagle 
35 J BaUi Kagle 
[35^] Merlin . 

359 Kestrel . 

360 American Sparrow Haw 
362 xVudubon^s Caraciira 

364 American Osprey 
2f>s American Barn Owl 
3G6 American Long-eared ( 
367 Short -eared Owl * 

365 Barred Owl . 

372 Saw- whet 0\^ 1 

373 Screech Owl . 
373a Florida Screech Owl 
373b Te-xan Screech Owl 
373c California Screech Ow 
375 Great Horned Owl 
375a Western Horned Owl 
378 B u r ro w i n g O w 1 * 
37Sa Florida Burrowing Owl 



280 
2S5 

2$9a 
3S9b 
292 
292a 

^93^ 



295 
300 
301 



310 
3^L 
312 

3'3 

316 
318 
319 
320 

3^ 
3^9 
33^ 

33^ 
333 
335 



337l> 

339 

341 

34^ 

343 



10 
^5 

fO 

20 
10 

10 

20 

401 

to 

75 

IS 

50 

6 
la 

6 

60 
6cj 
30 
30 

6 
to 

15 
10 

50 
10 

40 

75 

50 

300 

3 
20 

to 
t5 
35 

35 
3 5^ 

3*3 
I 00 

15 
30 

25 

40 



3^5 
3^^T 
3SS 

390 

393c 
394 
396 
401 

405 
406 

407 
41CJ 
4-2 

413 
416 

417 

419 

4:10 

420a 

420c 

421 

;!i 

4-9 
430 

431 
433 
434 
441 
443 
444 
445 

44S 
452 
453 

45^ 

45S 
461 

. ,4f'^ 

40 I 463 



"^5 

1 00 

60 
5^ 

2 00 
3«o 

35 
t5 
12 

75 
30 

^5 
20 
40 

50 
I 50 

30 
40 

30 

40 

-1 00 

I 00 

to 

1 00 



3S1 Elf Owl. 

[383] Ani . . - 

384 Groove-billed Ani 

Road-runner . 

Yellow-bjlled Cuckoo 

Black-billed Cuckoo 

Belted Kingfisher 

1 1 a i ry Woo d p ec k er 

I lart^is'fe Woodpecker 

Downy Woodpecker 

Baird'^ Woodpecker 

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 

Pileated Woodpecker , 

Red- headed Woodpecker 

California Woodpecker 

Golden-lTonted Woodpecker 

Flicker ^ 

Rcd-shat>ed Flicker 

Chuck-wilTs-vi klow 

Whip-poor-wiil 

Parauque 

Nigbthawk . 

Wcijtern Nightbawk 

Florida Nighihawk 

Texan Nighthawk 

Chinniey Swift 

Rii by - th r oated H u in m I n g -bi rd 

B lac'k-ch i nned ! 1 um mi ng-bird 

Costa's Humming-bird 

Anna's Humming-bird, 

Rufous Hnmming-bird 

Allen** !Iumming-bird 

Broad-bi i Itil H umm ing-bird 

Scissor-tailed Flycatcher 

Kingbird 

Gray Kingbird 

Arkansas Kingbird 

Cassm*i^ Kingbird 

Crested Flycatcher 

Mexican Crested Flvcatcber 

Fh<Ebe . * / - 

Sav's Phffibe . 

Black PbrjelAC 

Wood Pewee 

Western Wood Pewee . 

Vel low -l>el lied Mvcatcher 

464 Westerti Flycatcher 

465 Acadian Flycatcher 

466 Little Flycatcher . 
466a Trail rs Flycatcher 

467 Leatit Flvcatcber , 
[473] Skylark: 



Horned Lark 
Prairie Horned Lark 
Desert Horned Lark 
American Magpie - 
YeMoH -billed Magpie . 
Blue Jay 
Calitornia Jay 
Green Jay 
American Raven , 
White- necked Raven 
American Crow , 
Florida Crow 
I^orthwest Crow . 
F(?:h Crow 
[493] Starling 

494 Bobolink 

495 Co'wbird 

495a Dvvarf Cow bird 

496 Bronzed Cow bird 

497 YeMoH'-beaded Blackbird 



474 
474b 

474c 

475 

476 

477 
48t 

4S3 
4S6 

^tl 
4S8 



4^ 
490 



2 00 

75 
75 

12 

8 
lo 

'5 

40 
So 
lo 

^5 
30 

75 

r> 

»5 
^o 

3 

5 
I -5 
i CJo 

1-5 
30 
20 
60 

20 

40 
40 
50 
40 
50 
50 

8 

3 

40 

5 

20 

H 

15 

5 

10 
10 
to 
15 
-5 

TO 
10 

t5 
II 
H 
8 
10 
10 
10 
la 
'5 
5 
13 
75 
I 20 

75 

5 
20 

3« 

-5 

6 

15 

5 

to 
12 

3 



Digitized by 



Google 



49^ Rt:d-wiii|rt;d BlJickbinl 

499 Bk'olored Blut'kbTrd .,^ 

500 IVi colored Blackbird 

50 T Meadow Kirk . 
501b \Vc litem Mettdowl.irk 

505 Hfjodcd Oriol*.' 

506 Orchard Oriok 

507 Baltimore Oriole . 
50S Bullock^ OHole . 
510 Brtnvt^r's Blackbird 

5 1 i Ptr rp led rac k Je 
$ti;i Flondii Grnckle . 
511b Bronzed Grackie . 
§12 Greut-ttiilcd Graekle 
515 Boat-tailed Gnickle 
517 Purple Fincb 
519 House FiiKb 
519c St» Lucasi Hoii>!ie Finch 
5J9 American Goldfinch 

530 ArknoE^as Goldfinch 

53 1 La wre nee ' K Gold fi lie h 
5^6 Lapland Lon^^j^pur 
538 Che^itnut'CoIlarcd Longh-pur 
54O Gr;ih,K Unch . 
540a WeRierri \*e.sper Sparrow 
542a Suvanim Sparrow . 
546 VeHow-wingud Sparrow 
551 Lark Sparrow 
552ft Western Lark Sparrow 
^$S White-throated Sparrow 

560 Chipping Sparrow 
560a Western Chipping Sparrow 

561 CUiv-colored Sparrow* 
563 Field Spiirrow 
567 Slale-i:olored Junco 
5S1 Song Sparrow 
5Sia Desert Song Sparrow 
581c Ileerman's Song Sparro 
5Sid Sflmuer^s Sotis^ Sparrow 
5S4 Swamp Sparrow^ * 
566 Texas Sparrow 
5S7 Towhce 
58 7a Whitc-eved Towhee 
588a Spurred Towhoc ^ 

590 Green -tailed Towhee 

591 Canon Towhee 
591b CfUitornia Towhee 

593 Curdtnul 

594 Texitn Cardinal 

595 Rose'hrca^tcd Gro.^beak 

596 Black -headed Gro*iheuk 

597 Blue Grosbeak 
597a Wciitcrn Blue Grosbeak 

598 Indigri Bunting 

599 Lazuli Bunting 
601 Painted llunimg . 

604 Black-throated Bunting 
60^ Lark Bnnlin;^ 

605 Scarlet Titnager 

610 Surnmer TaiiajLjer 

611 Pur|*le Martin 
6*4 Clih: Swallow 
6t3 Bftrn Swallow 

614 Tree Swallow 

615 Viokt-Ciivcn Swallow 

616 Bank Swallow 

617 Rongb-w'inged Swallow 
619 Cedar Wax wing ♦ 
(iao Phaiiiopepln . 
622 Logge'rhead Shrike 
62-2a White-njinped Shrike 
622 b California Shrike . 



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SUNDRIES, 

African Ostrich, jsmall 

African Ostrich » large 

Emu 

Alligator 

Turtles . 



Red-eved Vireo 

Warbling Vireo 

Ve llo w-th roated \* irco 

Blat-k and White Warbler 

Prothonotary Warbler 

Swain m>n*s Warbler 

Parnhi Warbler 

\*elIow Warbler * 

Ma g n o 1 la Wn rb le r 

Chesinnt-^idcd Warbler 

Black-throated Green Warbler 

Pine Warbler 

Prairie Warbler 

OYen-bird 

Lo u i ti iiina Wate r-Tb r u 

Maryland Yellow -throat 

Ye 1 1 o w - b reast cd C ha t 

Long-tailed uhai . 

Hooded Warbler . 

American Red^tari 

White Waj^f ail 

Siberian Yellow Wagtail 

Meadow Pipit 

Saji^e Thrat^bei 

Mockingbird 

Catbird 

Brown Thrasher . 

Texas ThraJiber 

Curve-billed Thrasher 

Palmerfi Thrasher 

C a 1 if orn la Tb ra s he r 

Cris^al Thrasher * 

Cactu* Wren 

Rock Wren . 

Carohna Wreti 

Florida Wren 

Bewick's Wren 

Brtird*s Wren 

House Wren 

Park man's Wren . 

Western llouhC Wren 

Short-billed Marsh Wren 

Long-billed Marsh Wren 

Tide Wren . 

Wh i te-b rea s ted Nu th atch 

Red-breasted Xu I Iiatc h 

Brown -headed Nuthatch 

Pygmy Nuthatch , 

Pkin Titniou?^e 

Chickadee 

Carolina Chickadee 

Wi-cn-Tit 

CaUtornia Bush-Tit 

B ki e- g ra \' ( j n ate a tc li e i 

WoikI Thrush 

Wilrtou"*. Thrusli , 

R u s set- ba ckctl T h r u ^^ h 

Olive- backed Thrush 

Hermit Thrush 

American Robin * 

Western Robin 

Whe^tear 

Bluebird 

Western Blucbinl . 

Mountain Bluebird 



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ORNITHOLOGIST 

_AND — 

OOLOGIST. 

VOL. XVI i I. ^^ No. 7. 




JULY, 



CONTENTS. 



Cpnadian Ea^^le , » , . . 

Sprint,' Note*» from Philadelphia 

A Taxidermiht's Giui , , . . 

Notts from Iowa ... 

NeKting of the Jlooded Warbler 

Detroit, Mich,, 1S91 X'ote^ .... 

Old Orchards St. Lonis Co., Mo* 

A Utah Egging Trip > . , 

Xestitig Habits of the Grcat-honied Owb 

Nesting of the Broad- winged Hawk . 

A Peculiar Nesting Site of Cocerais Erjthrop- 

thalniij!:^ . . , * . * 

Xotes from Rivers ide, CiiL . 
Sketch It . . . 

Who will Answer? , . 

Birds of Mich ii^nn — A Review 
Brief Notes, Correspondence and Clippings 



Albert M, Roberlts 
Herbert W* Congdon 
Love Miller 
G.lL Berrv 
Atmon E. fCihbe 

B. H. Swales 
O. Widnmnn 
IL C* Johnson 

c.j.Y. 

Benjamin Hoag 

C, L, Browncll 
Love Miller 
Arthur M. Farmer 
Jas. B. B. Smith 
L. . 



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Birds' Skins and Eggs, 

BRO M 'NS VILLE^ TEX A S, 

Will give (>pcdal attention to the coUectioii, for 
hcientiilc purposef^* of all Birds. Beasts, Replile-i 
native to the iiitertor and border of Mexicn, and 
w n J f ^ I r n i Kh v are h\ I da ta i ri regard I o sa ni e . 
Coi-respondence respeciftilly solicited. 

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H. H. Sc C. S. BRIMLEY, 

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Vol. XVIII. 



PUBLISHED BY THE FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY. 

• ESTABLISHED MARCH, 1875. 

HYDE PARK, MASS., JULY, 1893. 



Single Copy 
10 cents. 

No. 7. 



Canadian Eagle. 



It was during the recent winter that, being 
in Montreal, Canada, I had the good fortune 
of acquiring from the dean of a medical in- 
stitution a grand specimen of the Golden 
Eagle {Aquila Chrysaetos), 

The facts of the procural of this Eagle are 
the following: It was shot on Montagne 
Rougemont (Johnson Mountain) in a sugar 
bush owned by the above dean and operated 
by his habitant or farmer. 

This mountain is situated at a distance of 
36 miles from Montreal and 3 miles from 
St. Cesaire, Rouville County, P.Q. Johnson 
Mountain is a bold, rugged, wooded emi- 
nence rising to a height of perhaps two 
thousand feet. It, however, seems higher on 
account of its being almost solitary amongst 
vast level stretches of farms, for which this 
section is noted and which extend miles in 
all directions. 

But to continue. This eagle was shot the 
1 8th of March, 1893. I received it frozen 
and mounted it a few days afterwards. 

I here append a few measurements which 
I took after the thawing out of the bird. 
They were taken as carefully as possible, 
from the sole fact, as you perhaps know, that 
Eastern specimens of the Golden Eagle are 
few and far between : 

Sex, female ; weight, 10 lbs. 14 oz. ; extent, 
84 inches (7 feet) ; wing, 27 inches; length 
(beak to tip of tail),. 35)^ inches; length 
(beak to end of claw), 34 inches; tail, 15 
inches; thigh, 7>^ inches; tarsus, 5 inches; 



toe (middle,) 2^^ inches; toe (hind) iY% 
inches; claw (inner), 2^ jnches; claw 
(hind), 2^ inches; mandible (upper, with 
cere), 3 inches. 

One can judge of the strength of such a 
bird when the tape, stretched around its 
thigh, indicates 7 inches, and around its head 
nine inches ; whereas the girth of the body 
around closed wings measures 27 inches. 

It is on close examination that you per- 
ceive just how those long, bear- like claws 
and powerful mandibles, combined with a 
powerful thick muscled raptoral body, and 
lastly that immense stretch of wings, can 
with ease make a Hare give its last squeak ; a 
Grouse whirr for the last time ; a stray I^mb 
carried exultingly upward; and, as history 
sometimes tells us, a child left by its mother 
flown away with and devoured at leisure. 

The weight of a large Bald Eagle, of which 
I have measurements, was but 9 pounds; 
though in extent, with tape stretched across 
its wings, gave the grand spread of 7 feet 4 
inches. 

That Golden Eagles have for years past 
been breeding on this Canadian mountain, I 
doubt not, for on many a rocky crag could 
their eyries have been built and they have 
reared their young in safety from man ; for 
rarely are those crags inspected, if ever, by 
enterprising oologists or even ornithologists. 
Even that highly educated dean didn't know 
whether it was a large Hawk or an immature 
Bald P2agle ! But the feathered tarsus plainly 
revealed its identity. Albert M, Roberts. 

Holyoke, Mass. 



Copyright, 1893, by FRANK Blaks Wbbstbr Company. 



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98 



ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. 18-N0. 7 



Spring Notes from Philadelphia. 



Unfortunately, I have not had enough 
leisure to make observations on the migra- 
tion every day, but have been tied down to 
a few days each week. 

I noted the first Robins and Crackles in 
any numbers on March 12. Song Sparrows 
came about the same time, and immense 
flocks of them could be found among the 
willows in the meadows. On March 27 th 
a few stray Warblers showed up, chiefly 
Yellow-rumps. The Woodpeckers and Fly- 
catchers came at about the same time. By 
April I St the Tree and Fox Sparrows had all 
left, and I think the Juncos and White- 
throat Sparrows left about the same time. I 
was away for two weeks then, and had to 
trust to hearsay. By April 21st the War- 
blers were coming in numbers, they being 
Yellow-rumps, Yellow Red-poles, Black- 
throated Blue and Black- throated Green. 

May I St I was out all the afternoon in 
woods and fields, and saw, besides the above 
many S Maryland Yellow- throats and Black- 
white Creepers. 

May 3d I was out again, and saw many 
9 Maryland Yellow- throats, and fewer <f 's. 

On May ist I saw no ?, which seems to 
mean that the sexes migrate separately. 

May 7 th I saw many Wood and Brown 
Thrushes, and many pairs of Oven-birds. 

May 9th I walked along the bank of the 
Schuylkill in Fairmount Park, and had a most 
delightful afternoon. It was quite warm, 
and with very little breeze. The sun was 
bright and the air full of the scent of flowers. 
Birds were singing all around, but I recog- 
nized very few of the songs. Among those 
I knew, that of the Catbird was prominent. 
I saw one sitting on a grapevine, singing 
away for all he was worth. I stole up near 
him, and began to squeak and whistle in a 
manner that would have frightened any other 
bird, but it only angered him. He turned 
towards me, and tried to drown me out with 
his song, and when I stopped, gave several 



curious notes, probably of triijmph at silenc- 
ing a rival. One in particular was very cu- 
rious, quite different from anything I have 
ever heard before. It was a quick, low 
cuttyhunkerhunk in a hoarse, tremulous 
tone. While I was looking around for more 
birds, I heard a song that Tve often heard 
before and never traced. I worked hard 
over this one, stealing right under the tree 
whence it came. It was a loud, clear wish- 
enew thrice repeated, making the woods 
ring. I swept the trees with my glasses, but 
no bird could I see, which was most aggra- 
vating, for it seemed as if he was nigh at 
hand. Finally, I threw a stick up among 
the boughs, and a little brown bird darted 
out, and lighting in a bush quite near, 
after remarking chick, chick, repeated his 
-wishenew, I looked at him carefully, and 
decided he was a Wren very quickly; but 
which one, I don't know yet. He was ruddy 
brown above, dirty white beneath, with a 
pronounced gray superciliary line, and an 
ashy cheek-patch. His tail was short, but I 
couldn't see the pattern. He seemed larger 
than the House Wren. His bill was about 
two thirds of his head, I should say. 

On walking further, I saw in a thicket a 
Thrush that I think was the Olive-backed, 
but it was too dark to see well. 

Down at the shore I looked over to a 
little island, about thirty feet out, and in a 
willow there I saw a pair of what I am firm- 
ly persuaded were Blue-gray Gnatcatchers. 
They hid down among the branches, and 
from there dropped into the long grass, and 
were lost to view. Back in the woods I saw a 
Wilson's Thrush and many Warblers, chiefly 
Maryland Yellow- throats. I saw a few $ 
Black- throated Blue Warblers, and one in- 
conspicuous Olive and Gray Warbler that I 
think was the ? Black- throated Blue. 

Up in the woods on the hills back of the 
river I flushed two Golden-winged Wood- 
peckers, and saw a Least Flycatcher and two 
Pewees. Herbert W. Congdon, 

1336 Spruce St., Philadelphia. 



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July, 1893.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



99 



A Taxidermist's Gun. 



I was in a predicament. Probably I am 
not the only one. I was going to school 
five days in the week and working on a 
" ranch ** every Saturday. 

I could not take my shotgun to school with 
me, nor could I hunt on Sunday; yet I 
couldn't slight the birds, and the spring 
days were passing rapidly without much ef- 
fect upon my collection. Something had to 
be done, and to the best of my financial abil- 
ity I did it. 

One evening I created no small sensation 
in the family by coming home from school 
bearing in state an old 45 calibre "Colt's 
Navy" that had crossed the plains in 1849. 
It was a villianous looking weapon, to be 
sure, and a little out of date, but it's a poor 
gun that's not better than no gun at all. 

The gunsmith cut the rifling for fifty cents 
and my Indian tamer was transformed into 
a bird call. The barrel proper is but 8 
inches long, but with paper cartridges I 
brought a California Cuckoo completely life- 
less from the top of a willow 30 or 40 ft. high. 

A convenient clarinet case of my brother's 
makes my outfit complete and with the un- 
offending disguise of a less dangerous instru- 
ment, my pipe (as the teachers call it) ac- 
companies me on my 4 mile walk to school 
every morning. 

It is not a perfect taxidermist's gun, but 
many a specimen in my cabinet I owe to 
this magic " pipe." If my brother student 
be cramped by a school-boy's pocketbook, 
let him go and do likewise, and according 
to my experience he will be repaid. 

JLoye Miller, 

Riverside, Cal. 

Notes from Iowa. 



I will mention a few of my finds of this 
season. A nest and two eggs of the Brown 
Creeper ; nest between loose bark and body 
of Cottonwood. Eggs partially incubated; 
bird shot A nest of common Crow contain- 



ing nine eggs. A set of five albino eggs of 
the Bluebird. A set of ^\t Catbird eggs, 
spotted with dark brown, and a set of two 
Krider's Red- tail Hawk — not bad for rare 
or unusual sets. I have collected skins of 
Yellow Prothonotory, Chestnut-sided, Black- 
throated Blue, Black-throated Green, Bay- 
breasted, Pine Creeping, Magnolia, Blue- 
wing Yellow,Golden-winged, Tennessee, Myr- 
tle, Nashville, Prairie and Golden Crowned 
Warblers and Yellow-breasted Chat. Quite 
a fair result for one season. All were shot 
with a 22 calibre Merwin Hurlburt, Junior, 
rifle and shot cartridges. G. H, Berry. 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 



Nesting of the Hooded Warbler. 



This beautiful little Warbler is one of the 
rarest Warblers I have the pleasure of study- 
ing. They usually arrive here the first week 
in May and soon commence their nest build- 
ing, and full sets are completed by the first 
week in June. They choose for their nesting- 
site some large piece of woods, usually high 
land, well filled with small undergrowth, and 
then place their nest in a small thick beech 
or maple bush, iisually from 1 2 to 24 inches 
from the ground ; but I took a set this 
season thirty-nine inches high. 

The nest is a plain structure, composed 
of dried leaves and vegetable material, occa- 
sionally lined with a little horse hair and a 
few spider webs outside. It is quite bulky 
for the bird, and one would think easy 
enough to find ; but when you enter a large 
piece of woods so well filled with small under- 
growth that you cannot see ten feet ahead 
you will find it quite necessary to get down 
on your hands and knees to look for their 
nests. 

I have found them readily, and have looked 
two or three hours in this way for them ; yet 
the longer I look the stronger are the ties 
for that particular nest. You rarely ever see 
the male bird, and if the female is sitting 
you have nothing to guide you; but even 



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100 



ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. 18-N0. 7 



then the Cowbird has often found it ahead 
of me and left her mark. 

I think the most secreted nest of the 
Hooded Warbler I ever found had been 
visited by the Cowbird. 

Although I find nests of other species of 
Warblers, I take more pleasure in looking 
after Sylvania mitrata nests under those 
difficulties than any other, unless it is the 
Blackburnian, although I have never been 
able to find but one set of their eggs. I suc- 
ceeded 4n taking seven sets of the Hooded 
Warbler this season, five sets with four eggs 
each, and two sets of three. I have never 
taken a set of ^^t. Eighty per cent, in my 
experience contain four eggs. 

Almon E, Kibbe. 
Mayville, N.Y. 

Detroit, Mich., 1891 Notes. 



April 29. I went out along Green Avenue 
to-day and took my first 1891 eggs — sets of 
four and ^\t. Song Sparrows from nests 
along the road. Saw my first Bobolink. 

May 2. Bluebird ; set of ^\t. eggs from a 
nest in hole of poplar. 

May 15. Meadow I^rk ; set of six eggs 
from a well hidden nest in a field at foot of 
Medbury Avenue. The I^rk does not seem 
to breed here as commonly as in former 
years. 

May 24. H. Allis and I went collecting 
in the swamps near Voight's woods. 

Olive-backed Thrush ; I found two nests 
containing four eggs each. The nests were 
in low bushes, and were shrouded over with 
green leaves, and were very pretty structures ; 
each contained a Cowbird's egg. I never 
found any nests of this Thrush before. 

Brown Thrasher ; set of three eggs from 
nest in a small bush. The ? made a great 
fuss when disturbed. 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo ; found a nest con- 
taining one fresh egg, and another two half- 
fledged young. 

Wilson's Thrush ; took a set of four eggs 
and one of the Cowbird. The Viery does not 



breed here as commonly as the Wood Thrush. 
Took one egg of the latter. 

May 27. Wilson's Thrush, three eggs, and 
Catbird four eggs. H. Allis shot a $ Myrtle 
Warbler, but we failed to find the nest, if 
there was one. 

May 3 1 . Wood Thrush ; set of four fresh 
eggs. This Thrush is a most exquisite song- 
ster, particularly in rainy weather, when his 
clear, ringing notes seem to be far sweeter. 

June 5. J. Claire Wood and I went col- 
lecting in Chestnut Ridge. Took a set of 
five Bluebird eggs from a hollow post. Wood 
killed a very large Woodchuck in the woods. 

Scarlet Tanager ; found a nest in an iron- 
wood tree, 16 feet up, containing four incu- 
bated eggs. Claire shot the <f and ? . The 
nest was extremely fragile. The Tanager 
breeds very rarely here, the only other nest 
I know of being one Mr. Wood took on 
Belle Isle on June 12, 1887, with one egg. 

Red-shouldered Hawk; a nest in a tall 
oak tree, containing three young. The nest 
contained two snakes. 

Crow ; found a nest with four large young 
nearly ready to fly. I took one home with 
me and it remained till August, 1892, when 
it died. 

June 8. Wood and I went out to High- 
land Park. Took a set of four spotted eggs 
of the Wilson's Thrush, and 3 Catbirds. 
Shot two Woodcock in a swamp, and two 
Scarlet Tanagers, $ Redstart, Yellow-billed 
Cuckoo, Ovenbird, Wood Phoebe, Vesper 
Sparrow, Brown Thrasher, etc., in the woods. 

June 10. Went collecting on Grassy Island 
in the Detroit River, with the Wood brothers. 
We collected 68 Marsh Wren, 36 Florida 
Gallinules, one set of Eight Horned Grebe, 
three sets of Black Terns, two of three and 
one of two ; and one set of one Red- winged 
Blackbird. We had hard work getting them, 
as the sharp reeds cut our legs and bodies 
up badly. 

June 12. We went down to the marshes 
again and had splendid success, getting fifty 
Gallinule, 35 Coots, 40 Marsh Wrens, 76 



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Black Tern, 20 Horned Grebes, 20 Pied- 
billed Grebes, one Blackbird and two Least 
Bittern eggs. The Black Tern were in 
swarms. A pair of American Bitterns nest 
here, but we couldn't find the nest. 

June 30. Found a nest of tne Wood 
Phoebe at St. Clair containing one egg and 
two young. The nest was a most beautiful 
structure of lichens saddled on the bough of 
an apple tree. 

July 30. Saw a fine Bald Eagle flying 
down the St. Clair River. It lit on a tele- 
graph pole on the river wall for a few min- 
utes. Miss M. Ellen Lane saw him again 
later. 

July 31. American Goldfinch; set of four 
eggs from nest in an apple tree 15 feet up. 

B, H, Swales. 
Detroit, Mich. 



Old Orchard, St. Louis Co., Mo. 



"Who can do better?" asks Mr. S. R. 
Ingersoll ("O. & O.," XVIIL 5, page 77) 
after naming 14 species nesting within 300 
feet of his " home among the birds." 

While this may be an excellent showing 
for some parts of the country, it could hardly 
be considered extraordinary in this Missis- 
sippi Valley. 

To the general reader who has not taken 
actual measure, it is proper to say that a 300 
foot limit line around a country house incloses 
a much larger area than one might suppose. 

Within 300 feet of my house I counted 
not less than 280 trees of 30 different kinds, 
besides a large kitchen garden, flower garden, 
vineyard, part of a pasture, part of 2 ponds, 
outbuildings, lawn, rockroad, etc. 

It is true that I took pains to attract birds 
by putting up bird-boxes, stumps with holes, 
brush piles, etc., and also that birds are never 
molested. They can eat all the peas, cher- 
ries, berries, pears and grapes they want 
(and I think the whole damage don't amount 
to 50 cents a year) ; they can drink all the 
water they want, build wherever they want 



and can make all the noise they want — the 
more the better. 

The following is a list of all the birds found 
nesting within the 300 foot limit ; the num- 
bers mean pairs, not nests ; some breed, of 
course, more than once in a season, and in 
some boxes three broods are raised in one 
season, for instance, two broods of Bluebirds 
and afterwards a brood of House Wrens. 
Woodthrush, i ; Martin, 7 ; 

Kingbird, i ; Robin, 2 ; 

Chippy, 2 ; Great-crested, i ; 

Mockingbird, 2 ; Field Sparrow, i ; 

Phoebe, i ; Catbird, 4 ; 

Towhee, i ; Pewee, i ; 

Thrasher, i ; Cardinal, i ; 

Traill's, i ; Bluebird, 2 ; 

Rose-breast, i ; Swift, i ; 

Tufted Tit, i ; Indigo, i ; 

Redhead, i ; Bewick's Wren, i ; 

Baltimore, i ; Flicker, i ; 

House Wren, 6 ; Orchard O., 2 ; 

Mourning dove, i ; Maryland Yellow- 
Br. Grackle, 4 ; throat, i ; 

European Tree Spar- Warbling Vireo, 2 ; 

rows, many pairs ; Bluejay, 2. 

Another species reared within 300 feet is 
the Molothrus. One young Cowbird was 
reared by a Pipilo and another by a Pewee. 
An extension of 150 feet would add such 
species as Homed I.ark, Dickcissel, Meadow 
Lark, I^rk Finch, etc. 

O. Widmann, 

■ ^.^ 

A Utah Egging Trip. 



One beautiful morning we left American 
Fork bound for the lake, our party consisting 
of the captain, an old sea dog who still " hank- 
ers " after the water but pretends to go with us 
boys to see that we do not get drowned, also 
two young friends, interested in anything that 
flies, and myself. On the way to the lake 
we met a boy who said he had just scared up 
a bird with an awful long bill, so we impressed 
him into the service and he took us to a fine 
nest of four Wilson's Snipe, eggs all laying 
with their points together in a nest of dry 



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grass in a little hollow close to an irrigating 
ditch. Gathering them into a collecting box 
we proceeded to the lake and in a very few 
minutes had the moorings tQ the " Sea Gull " 
cast off and were standing off towards a large 
slough or swamp that we proposed to explore. 

The day looked windy, and I might ex- 
plain that the mountain squalls are peculiarly 
violent here ; but on this day we did not 
care for the looks of the weather as we were 
off for specimens. Anchoring off the mouth 
of the creek that empties into the lake from 
the swamp, we soon were in the small skiff 
and pushing up the creek through the tules. 
Every moment some one would see a Yellow- 
Headed Blackbird's nest or a Tule Wren's, 
which we would examine ; but it was unsat- 
isfactory collecting the latter, as each pair of 
birds appear to construct at least five decoy 
nests, and hence it was a long task to get 
many nests with eggs. Every little while 
some other nest was discovered and we found 
on reaching the yacht that we had a set of 
10 Mallards, three sets of American Coot, 
one set of American Bittern, and one set of 
some kind of Goose or Swan. The latter 
eggs were in a large nest floating on the 
creek, but were spoiled and had evidently 
been left by the old birds on account of the 
rising water. 

We next set sail for the opposite shore of 
the lake, some ten miles distant, where we 
arrived in a short time. Leaving the cap- 
tain to run the yacht, we boys went ashore 
and walk for some hve miles along in the 
sage bushes and found in this walk ten sets 
of Sage Thrasher's eggs. This bird was the 
commonest of any we observed on the west 
shore of the lake, and every nest we found 
was built in a greasewood bush about two 
feet from the ground, and constructed of dry 
greasewood twigs and lined with bark and 
sheep wool. The eggs were four and fivG, 
but five principally, and were most beauti- 
ful, being of an irridescent green with brick- 
red spots. 

We found a Burrowing Owl's nest and 



hailed the yacht for something to dig it out 
with, but as a couple pair of oars did not 
make good spades we gave it up as a bad 
job. Just about this time one of the boys 
discovered a Blow Snake, which got away, 
but it seemed to be at least six feet long, and 
indeed this is not an unusual length for this 
snake. About three o'clock the wind, which 
had been quite strong, began to develop into 
a little gale and we were obliged to go aboard 
and get the yacht off the lee shore. We made 
for Pelican Point, some- six miles distant, in 
hopes of rounding the same and obtaining 
shelter, but the wind increased so suddenly 
that by the time we were about five miles it 
was blowing so that we were obliged to take 
in even the close-reefed jib sail and anchor. 
The boys not appreciating supper in the 
high seas that were running, we all put off 
for the shore, where they discovered a dug- 
out in which lived a Danish family. On 
learning our plight they took us in and were 
hospitality itself. I do not suppose that 
many of the readers of the " O. & O." have 
seen a dug-out, but for solid comfort in a 
hard storm out on the sage plains or desert 
I would prefer a good, large, clean dug-out 
to any camp I know of. 

By the following morning the storm had 
lifted somewhat and we managed to get our 
skiff into a large patch of tules and swamp 
that was near, and here we found many more 
Yellow Heads and Mudhen's eggs. A Loon 
was out in the lake, but my rifle either could 
not go straight or else I could not point it 
straight, and I only succeeded in frightening 
it away. About noon we got up a comer of 
our jib sail and made a run before the wind 
of ten miles to Springville Lake, where we 
arrived at one o'clock with two sea -sick boys 
on board. On entering the gap into the 
lake we anchored in perfectly calm water and 
right in the midst of a perfect archipeligo. 
The little boat was immediately called into 
service and we began explorations. Almost 
the first thing that we saw was an island simply 
covered with Great Blue Herons and we 



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counted about 60 nests built flat on the tules 
(there being no trees in that part of the 
country). After taking some good sets of 
these eggs, we went all around among the 
islands and found some American Eared 
Orebe and also one set of Western Grebes, 
three eggs. These Grebes, or Hell Divers 
as they are called locally, build a floating 
nest on the still water, and construct the 
same of tules; the eggs are therefore not 
more than two inches from the surface of the 
water. As we were all tired and provisions 
growing alarmingly low, we concluded to go 
home. If I gave a description of that I fear it 
would be simply a description of high waves, 
sea- sickness and terror for all the boys and 
delight for the captain. Never was I more 
glad to get on dry ground again with my eggs, 
for on the trip home wouldn't I have given 
them all for some assurance that we would 
get ashore safely. 

The next day my cabinet bore evidences 
of a good addition, and, after all, was not 
this a trip to look back upon and feel proud 
of? H, C, Johnson, 

American Fork, Utah. 



Nesting Habits of the Great-horned 
Owls. 



We have found three nests of this species 
during the past few years near the river St. 
lawrence. The first some years ago in a 
small tamarack tree, which in May held two 
young just able to fly. This nest had pre- 
viously been a Crow's. The second in 1892, 
in a second-growth white pine. It was a 
disused squirrel's abode, and on the 25 th of 
April contained two young about a fortnight 
old. The young were not molested, but this 
year there were no signs of Owls in those 
woods. This year we found a nest in a 
white birch on the nth of April; it con- 
tained two eggs ; incubation advanced. The 
same nest last year and the year before was 
tenanted by the Red-shouldered Hawk, 
which is our most common Hawk in this 
locality. This is all I know of the habits of 



Bubo Virgin ianus^ except that we have 
kept one in confinement for several years, in 
fact since it was a nestling. I have it still. 

C.J. r. 

Leeds Co., Ont. 



Nesting of the Broad-winged Hawk. 



I enter Buteo latissimus as a tolerably 
common breeder here, as I know of four 
nesting localities within fvst miles of this 
village, and had I time to explore suitable 
territory during the meeting season, doubt- 
less many more would be found. 

Speaking of the Broad-wing, calls up 
pleasant remembrances of my first acquain- 
tance with the nesting of this species, and 
it was the first Hawk's egg to enter my col- 
lection. Although it was taken over ten 
years ago, the scenes and incidents of the 
trip are as fresh in my memory as though it 
were yesterday. I have no need to refer to 
my note-book to give the data. 

May 6, 1883, I was searching for nests in 
the large tract of timber known as the 
** Eighty Acres." Coming out on the brink 
of a hill, where the forest slopes down to the 
banks of Black Brook, the object for which 
I had so long and eagerly tramped the woods 
met my view, sitting quietly on her nest 
Some distance below I saw a Hawk and I 
hurried down. She reluctantly left at my 
approach, but kept about the nearest trees 
uttering her sorrowful, pleading notes until 
I left the vicinity. The tree was a rather 
scrubby white oak, easy to climb. I was 
soon at the nest, twenty-five feet up in a 
crotch near the top. It was small in diam- 
eter, but deep and with a shallow nest cavity. 
There on a lining of bark strips, scales of 
hemlock bai:k and green sprigs of hemlock, 
lay a beautifully marked egg. The mark- 
ings are bright russet, on a ground color of 
greyish-white, with a slight tinge of green- 
ish. They are very heavy, and evenly dis- 
tributed over the entire egg ; very Httie of 
the true ground color shows ; here and there 



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specks and spots of lilac show through the 
russet. Size, 1.9 1 X 1.57. 

During the succeeding years I have taken 
quite a presentable drawer of eggs of our 
breeding Hawks, but my first egg is the gem 
of them all. 

On May 5 th, 1892, I was afield up the 
valley of Black River in a scattering piece 
of mixed timben An old nest in a good 
sized yellow birch showed signs of being re- 
paired. A visit on the morning of the 13th 
showed the nest nicely built up, with green 
twigs of hemlock showing in the sides. A 
vigorous pounding on the tree flushed no 
bird, so I turned to leave and there on the 
lower limb of a tree not two rods away sat 
a female Broad-wing. I strapped on the 
irons and went up to find the nest all ready 
for their reception, but no eggs. Several 
visits during the next twelve days did not 
warrant a full set. I went up again the 26 th 
and found two eggs, clean and fresh, one 
about half as large as the other. I brought 
them down, then changed my mind, went 
back up and left them in the nest. I climbed 
up again on the 28 th, still only two eggs, 
which I now took. The owner protested 
with her sad, supplicating notes. The larger 
egg is faint bluish-white, sparsely spotted 
and specked with umber-brown, portions of 
the surface slightly granulated, somewhat 
flattened on one side; size, 2.00x1.59. 
The smaller is unmarked, pale greenish- 
white, pointed at one end, shell very thick 
and rough; size, 1.76 x 1.30. It contained 
no yolk, but, besides the white, several pieces 
of tough substance resembling the inner lin- 
ing of the egg. The nest was twenty-seven 
and a half feet from the ground, and, as I 
have before stated, was an old one rebuilt, 
thickly lined with inner barks, chunks of 
lichen, covered red-oak bark, pieces of rotten 
wood, sprigs of green hemlock and several 
wing and tail feathers of the owners. Great- 
est outside diameter twenty-eight inches; 
smallest, fifteen inches; inside diameter, 
eleven inches; depth of nest cavity three 
inches. Benjamin Hoag, 

Stephentown, New York. 



A Peculiar Nesting Site of Coccy- 
zus Ery thropthalmus . 



During the present season I have taken 
seven clutches of the above species, and have 
been familiar with the bird from my early 
boyhood, but had yet, up to June 4th, 1893, 
to find a nest on the ground. In this case 
the nest was placed in a clump of weeds 
and within two inches of mother earth. The 
bird was flushed, and both bird and nest 
were tj'pical. Two eggs, partially incubated, 
made up the clutch. I should be glad to 
hear from other collectors concerning their 
experiences in this direction. 

C L. BrownelL 

Nyack-on- Hudson, N.Y. 



Notes from Riverside, Cal. 



I took, this spring, a very queer specimen 
of Brewer's Blackbird. It is a young male, 
but instead of having the brownish cast of 
the young, it is a hoary ash on breast and 
throat, and the first four primaries of each 
wing are snow white. Otherwise it is nor- 
mal plumage. 

September, 1892, I secured from a flock 
feeding in sunflower ticket a female Carpo- 
dacus frontalis. The plumage is white, 
with the markings of the female of this 
species outlined in pale brownish buff. The 
bill and feet are flesh color ; the eyes are, 
however, the usual dark-brown. 

I would like to know something about the 
range of the Black Rail {Porzana janiar- 
cencis). I secured a fine specimen here 
August 13, 1892, while mowing alfalfa hay. 

Loye Miller. 

Riverside, Cal. 

Benjamin F. Goss died at his home in 
Pewaukee, Wisconsin, on July 6, 1893, aged 
7c years. He was an oologist of consider- 
able prominence, and his death will be 
lamented by his many friends. 



We have just printed a price-list of Birds* 
Eggs, which will be sent on application. 



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Sketch It. 



How many of my readers do not keep a 
note-book ? Scarcely one, if he be a natural- 
ist. To claim to be a student of nature and 
and not keep a note-book would call forth 
as much scorn these days as would be pro- 
voked by the assertion that a man was a mer- 
chant when people knew ^ he didn't even 
keep a ledger. 

Therefore I will take it for granted that 
we all keep our observations recorded. If not 
for the public, at least for ourselves. 

Now next winter, and the succeeding 
winters and summers, which I hope you 
may all pass pleasantly, you will be looking 
over this year's note-book. You will read 
how you saw that handsome Duck Hawk in 
the White Mountains or those rare Warblers 
in the swamp. Then you will turn over a 
page and read how you scaled the moun- 
tains and swung over the ledge for those 
eggs and found young, or how, after weary 
hours' searching for the home of that Cape 
May, you found an old nest, vacant these 
three years. All this and more you will re- 
call with pleasure as you are snugly settled 
in your library, caring naught for the gale 
outside. 

You will laugh as you think of the hard 
words you thought when you were disap- 
pointed, and you will try to bring those 
happy remembrances up before your vision. 
Hut you can't. No, sir, they won't come. 
You will confuse scenes of trout fishing and 
that fine shot at the Woodcock with the 
sight that greeted your eyes as you hung 
suspended two hundred feet in midair, or 
you will remember that morning on the 
marshes with the Mallards coming in in big 
wedges, and you will hear the boom ! boom ! 
of your double, followed by the splash- h-h, 
thud, thud, as those five came down to two 
shots. 

All this or something just as misleading 
will be mixed in with your ornithological 
ideas and you can't help yourself. That is, 



you cannot unless you sketch it. " Sketch 
it?" "Yes; why not?" "Why, I can't 
sketch." " Perhaps not, but learn." 

You couldn't walk once, but you learned. 
You couldn't read — you learned. You 
couldn't write — you can now. How is it? 
Why, you learned, of course. 

Well, then, learn to sketch, and when you 
go on a trip take your sketch-book along. 

Whenever you see anything that interests 
you and you enjoy, sit down and sketch it. 
Yes, sir, sit right doWn and sketch, sketch, 
sketch. That's the way to learn. Try it. 
Try again and you'll succeed. 

Arthur M. Farmer, 

Amoskeag, N.H. 



A. H. B. Jordan writes that a Rubythroated 
Hummer met death in a peculiar manner at 
their mill at Johnsonburg, Pa. It flew into 
the bleachery window, and, encountering the 
flumes of chlorine, dropped dead in an in- 
stant as if it had been shot. 



Two sets of eggs of the Passenger Pigeon 
just received are the first that we have had 
sent in for a long time. 



Now that business is again starting up, 
pay your small bills. They are really of 
more importance than they appear. Sub- 
scribers should think of this. It is necessary 
for the continuation of a publication. The 
printer's bill must be paid. 



Alligator eggs are soon to be very rare, 
those at least from Florida. Where we used 
to have them offered by the thousand, we 
now seldom hear th2m mentioned. 



I'wo lobsters were recently caught at the 
Cape weighing 19 and 17 lbs., respectively. 
They were preserved. 

Summer Birds of Green County, Penn., 
by J. Warren Jacobs, Waynesburg, Pa. It 
is a list of Birds found in the locality during 
th« breeding season, describing localities 
frequented, dates of nesting, etc. 



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ORNITHOLOGIST^^OOLOGIST 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OP 

NATURAL HISTORY, 

ESPECIALLY DEVOTED TO THE STUDY OF 

BIRDS, 

THEIR NESTS AND EGGS, 

AND TO THE 

INTERESTS OF NATURALISTS. 

Under the Editorial Management of 
FRANK B. WEBSTER. . Hyde Park, Mass. 
J. PARKER NORRIS Philadelphia, Pa, 

PUBLISHED AT THE 

MU8CUM AND NATURALISTS* SUPPLY DEPOT 

OF THE 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY, 

INCORPORATED, 

HYDE PARK, MASS. 



The O. & O. is mailed each issue to every paid subscriber. 
If you fail to receive it, notify us. 



WHO WILL ANSWER? 
Editor of O, & O,: I wrote you quite a 
while ago asking a question that you pub- 
lished, but there has never been an answer to 
it. Please try it again. " What is authen- 
tically known in regard to the rapidity of flight 
by different species of birds, and which is 
considered the swiftest?" 

Yours truly, 

Jas, B, B, Smith. 



BIRDS OF MICHIGAN-A REVIEW. 

During the past month of June there ap- 
peared a very comprehensive list of the Birds of 
Michigan. This new work of one hundred 
and fifty pages, embraces three hundred and 
thirty- two species and races of birds found 
in the peninsular State, with copious notes. 
These notes are especially entertaining in 
their reference to the food of birds, and in 
many places the master hand of the author 
is evident. This is particularly noticable in 
the occasional descriptions of the food habits 
of some insectivorous species, where the ob- 
servations are very interesting. 

The author of this work is Professor A. J. 
Cook, State entomologist of Michigan, a 
gentleman eminent in his profession, and an 



instructor in various departments of science 
at Michigan Agricultural College. 

The professor has given evidence of his 
ability in selecting the most appropriate notes 
from the great mass of material at hand. 
Michigan has been for many years one of 
our leading states in the study of ornithology, 
as it is the home of a large number of orni- 
thologists. The^e students have, with scarce- 
ly an exception, assisted Professor Cook. 
The result has been that the combined ob- 
servations have been boiled down, systemat- 
ically reduced and sifted ; and we can safe- 
ly say that the whole list is as exact as it is 
possible for any compiler to construct it from 
a general collection of notes. In fact it is 
but proper to acknowledge it as a marvel in 
compilation. 

There are several incongruities and a few 
absurd errors, some of which are absolutely 
ludicrous in their glaring stupidity. How- 
ever, the author has wisely shielded himself 
and escaped possible criticism by embracing 
these infirmities of inaccurate observers 
within evasive quotation marks. 

Michigan's bibliography is necessarily 
large, and the very nearly complete list of 
catalogues and articles fills twelve pages. 
This list presents notice of all available 
written matter from 1832 to 1893, inclusive. 
The first catalogue of the Birds of Michigan, 
byDr. Abr. Sager, 1839, embraced 164 spe- 
cies. Dr. M. Miles's list, 1861, contained 
203 birds, and Dr. Morris Gibbs's catalogue, 
1879 embraced 309, species and races. 

We are pleased to note that the departed 
friends and fellow ornithologists, W. H. 
Collins of Detroit, Hon. D. Darwin Hughes 
and Charles W. Gunn of Grand Rapids, and 
Dr. H. A. Atkins of Jx)cke, are quite fre- 
quently quoted. In fact each one, living 
and dead, who has advanced Michigan orni- 
thology in a literary way has received due 
credit, while many collectors and observers 
who do not write are referred to in the text. 

In addition to the above matter is a re- 
sume of the game laws, together with mater- 



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AND OOLOGIST. 



107 



ial pertaining to protection of birds. The 
typographical and press work is excellent 
and cannot fail to be satisfactory. 

In addition to Michigan notes, many 
observations refer to Ohio, Indiana and Wis- 
consin. Space forbids my speaking more 
fully, or I would enumerate the outsiders to 
whom we are indebted. Suffice it to say 
that the work is, properly speaking, a very 
complete treatise on the birds of the Great 
Lake Region and will interest all. Z. 



Brief Notes, Correspondence and 
Clippings. 



T. A. James writes from Meriden, Conn., 
that he has a young Chipmunk that is nearly 
white and is about half grown. It has a 
brown patch on one shoulder and a few spots 
on the back. 



A word or two more about Pine Grosbeaks. 
As they are strangers here, this winter they 
created quite an amount of notice. Every 
day or two some one would ask the question. 
What new birds are these around here ? On 
February 5 th, when I arrived home from 
church, my 12 -year-old girl ran to meet me 
saying, " O, papa, I have caught one of those 
Pine Grosbeaks ; he was so tame I put my 
hand right on him while he was eating horse- 
brier berries." I have kept him (I say him 
for I think it is a male, as he sings very 
sweetly, although it has not the red plumage) 
in a cage since that time. Once a week I 
bring in a small pine tree and let " Dick " 
out for a nice time, which he seems to enjoy 
very much. He is very tame ; will alight on 
our heads and makes himself very much at 
home in general. He feeds freely on oats, 
pine buds, sand, apple and other seeds, and 
has a very nice time bathing in a saucer of 
water. 

On April 20, in answer to a rap on my 
door, a friend says, " I have a bird here ; I 
would like to know what it is." So we took 
out the bird, which was stuffed into a large 



paper bag with a lot of paper wound around 
his head and throat filled with old rag^. 
Well, to tell the truth, I was stuck for a min- 
ute, but told him I guessed it was a Turkey 
Buzzard, which proved to be the fact when 
I looked him up. This is the only one I 
have ever heard of in eastern Massachusetts. 
Have they been taken in this vicinity before? 

C C Foster, 
West Duxbury, Mass. 



A full plumaged Bald Eagle was seen by 
E. G. Duncklee at Blue Hill on June 4. 

April 30 I found a Bluebird's nest in a 
somewhat peculiar situation. A two quart 
milk can, which had been used in a ceme- 
tery to hold flowers, had been placed in the 
fork of a bush right side up, and the bird at 
this time had ^t eggs in it, entering and 
leaving the can by the top. I was somewhat 
curious to learn what effect a heavy rain 
would have on the bird; but one we had 
soon after, apparently had no effect as the 
can probably leaked, preventing the bird 
from being drowned out. 

July 4, while roaming over the country, I 
came across an old building which had been 
used as a carpenter shop. Of course I had 
to investigate. Up stairs on a projecting 
board next to the ceiling, I found a Pewee's 
nest with ^^^ eggs, while in the basement 
among the floor timber I found a Robin's 
nest containing four young birds. On an 
offer of fifty cents apiece, I have the young 
fellows of the neighborhood on the rampage 
after Bat's eggs. Rufus H, Carr, 

Brockton, Mass. 



Here are a few of my " finds " this year : 
April 29, Crow 4, Cooper's Hawk 2 ; May 
28, Sore Rail 10; June 11, Indigo Bunting 
3 ; June 20, Phoebe 6 ; May 20, Phoebe 5 ; 
May 21, Vesper Sparrow 4 ; May 24, Vesper 
Sparrow 4 ; May 28, Yellow Warblef 2 ; 
July 29, Goldfinch 5 ; July 30, Goldfinch 6. 

On April 29, 1893, I collected a set of 
two fresh eggs of the Cooper's Hawk from 
a nest 75 feet up in a beech in a thick piece 



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of timber in Highland Park. This is the 
first nest of this species I ever found, al- 
though the bird is sometimes seen. I shot 
the male a short distance off. 

B. H. Swales. 
Detroit, Mich. 



In Oliver Davie's book on birds, an ac- 
count is given of the eggs, etc., of the Black 
Swift taken at Yesler's wharf on salt water. 
Would say that I have been here since 1888, 
when they were claimed to have been taken. 
I have never seen the Swift on salt water. 
On Lake Washington (fresh water), a few 
miles distant, they are abundant, occasion- 
ally flying within gunshot. Around Yesler's 
wharf Purple Martins are plenty and were 
during 1 888. The Swift seems to keep away 
from habitation, and Yesler's wharf in 1888 
was the scene of great bustle and activity. 
I have watched the Swift and think they 
breed in hollow trees inland. Mr. S. F. 
Rathbum and the writer thinks, perhaps, 
those eggs found in 1888, at Yesler's wharf, 
were Purple Martins. I would be glad to 
hear from the owner of the set of eggs. 

Frank H, Renick, 

Seattle, Wash. 



He was a happy naturalist, 

Well versed and of repute. 
For with the learned Ph.D.*8 

lie would often dare dispute. 
He worked on ornithology, 

For this his favorite was, 
Also delved in entomology 

And conchology and its laws. 
He could talk of cerripedes 

In language quite astute, 
And when he spoke jaw-breaking names 

His friends all thought him cute. 
But now no more he talks of birds, 

No JTiore afield he's carried, 
The trouble isn't that he's dead, 

But simply this — he's married. 

B. H. Carr. 

* — Ml^ • — ■ 

W. E. Mulliken, care of C. & W. M. R.R., 
Grand Rapids, Mich., wishes the address of 
all ornithologists. He proposes to get out a 
directory. 



Carl Fritz-Henning is engaged in a work, 
"Notes on the Birds of Boone County, 
Iowa," which he expects will cover 420 
pages, with 40 plates drawn and colored 
from nature. He hopes to complete it dur- 
ing the present year. 



We are constantly receiving letters from 
entire strangers asking us to send small lots 
of goods. They do not seem to entertain 
the idea of enclosing cash for same, and get 
indignant if their attention is called to it. 
If, to accommodate, we send the goods, we 
then have to whistle for our pay. We wish 
it to be understood that we are now doing 
a strictly cash business. 



It isn't every spring chicken which has 
friends who swoop down upon the sufferer 
in time of trouble, bringing a new suit of 
clothes. Mrs. W. H. Pearson, who lives on 
the east side of the river near Farmington 
Fall village, has a freak of nature in the shape 
of a spring chicken. The chicken was born 
as other chicks are bom, but it failed to grow 
as the others did and the down upon it grad- 
ually dropped off, so that now its skin is en- 
tirely bare of feathers, and the little body on 
tall legs, and with its head, presents a ludi- 
crous sight. The other chickens peck its 
bare skin and drive it away from the food, 
so that it wanders off alone and picks up its 
food when a chance to " snatch something 
and run " presents itsejf. Mrs. Pearson has 
made a "coat and vest" for the naked 
chicken in which he struts about the yard 
like the long-legged dude. 



T n M M I M F ^ Bottle Tans 19 Fox Skins. 

IrilHlHIiMll* THOUSANDS HAVE USED IT 

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See Advertisement in February issue of the O. & O. 
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SEND FOR OUR PRICE LISTS. 
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By PROFESSOR A, J, CuUK, 

Three Hundred and Thirty-Twa 

Species and Varieties of the 

Birds of Michigan 

arc embraced with copious notes iti Lhls new \hu 



The work comprises one hundred and llftv 
pages of carefuUv compiled notes by Professor 
Cook mid other ornithologislfi of Michigan and 
adjacent St;»tes. It is, in fact, a work on the 
Birdn of the Great Lake Region, and c^innot fail 
to be of interest to the naturaUftts of America. 

Tht?re h a nearly complete hih!iog^niphj on 
Michto^n ornithology, extending back to the 
fir*;t writings on thk j^ubject in 1833. 

Pr/cct postpaid^ js ^cnt$. 

MORRIS GIBBS, M. D.. 

KALAMAZOO, MICH. 



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CICULABS FRRW, 

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EI>i 



VA.^ M' INKLE, 



Taxidermy and Zoological Collecting. 

A Complete Hand-book of ^t^2 pages ior the amateur Taxidermist, Collector, Osteolo- 
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Illustrated with Twenty-four Plates and Eighty-five Text Pictures 

By WILLIAM T. HORNADAY, 

F&y Bight Yettrs Chief Taxf dermis/ ft/ (kc I/. S, Nttiiontd MttstHm. 

It not only covers all the ^onnd as a text-book for the beginner, but any Taxidermist 
will be rt-pftid'bv a perusal of its pages, and once read, it will lie on the work bench^ as a 
companion to the scissors and skinning kntfc, for it is as indi^pensabk to one who desires 
to be a WORKMAN, as is the frame work of the specimen itself* 



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ORNITHOLOGIST 

— AND — 

OOLOGIST. 

VOL. XVIII. ^^^ Nos. 8, 9, 10. 




AUG., SEPT., 



OCT., 1893. 



CONTENTS. 



Arotrj*T: 
ni-jtijiiutioii of tliL' Y<.*lli>vv-Hi'nrlcMl lUrtokhinl In 
111 Initio , , , . W. K^ Liiiicks, 

StMriiii:: tit th« ►Siiw-wliL't tJwI. !>«(! U. LSpjiuldln^^ 

A I'l'f uMnrltv m llio Ni^ siting liitblU'^ at tht* Vir 

Viiiin-'T VV-it> Html HinlB . P. M. HlUpT/i'iiy, 

Till' [»i>^\ii_v WotMl|ie<^kt^r nil Eiietiiv t>t' theCJoiiliiig 

MiHh - H. . . . lWnJ!i]iilii Hung; 

Till- WooiJ TJiru:*!! . , * Jiiim** B. I'Mrtly. 

rwlntui Hiirlior* Htswdolii Hii\% >i'**rrli tin*rnlHtiil, 

Aug. KH^« . , .' <;«MJrjj*' K.Cltirk 



Two Ua v* K{c«rlt)^ Ui Jum^ 
Ttte rolic'jinfl nf alVchigiiri 






imi 
112 

nil 

117 

an 
nu 

1S£0 



121 



A Fuw yb?Her\'!iLlnnr* oh Tl»c ('i'i''slt^<l FhT"nt4'tn'r. 

JtplsTi t\ Urowii, 
A ViiiyirUmtn PLMiii'^vlvniilfl. Utsrbi'it WruiipUni. 
l>wk* ill HimUiiM'n Wl!*i'uii:iiii - Nt'U i[<>inNti?r. 
NuTiii* rrmu MMliit: . . . John L* IiooiImIl', 
Uriel Xote*i, < 'arrt^titionilcm-tt mai ClipnlHj^ 
Till' FltKht iif BInlH.— .V Hv^y- -J^ HnliHit Eiflien. 
Xou?^ii[it)ir :41iiiri'~>^tiluni'it llttwk. Wm, II, llMlmn 



A Ni^^l of ririi lliivrk;^ . 

Sitti*:^ froJti lii'i'i'iiliitid . 

MiiHli* on rtui WlnjT 

f^i>i]i|4t)„jti^ \ In nit iHv\^ 

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BrW-f Nol^-**', (\)rrt'i*[3tijiiieiu%* und CUpplngit^ 



irenl^y 11. Etirk. 

A. T. llfiKVfUp- 

Jlciirv AyIHI, 

n. (J. Oriiit'lu't'. 

WiilluDi L. KiillH. 



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B/^O IVyS VI L LE, TEX A S, 

Will give special ntlention to the coUettion, for 
scientific purpo.«^e!^i, ot all Birdsi Beft«t>^, ReplHeK 
native to the interior nnd horde r of Mexico, und 
^vill furnish careful tliUa in regard to same. 
CorrcHpondencc rc*.pectfully (yolictted. 

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KALEiGII, N t 

COLLECTORS, 



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Collector* 

Carefully prepared Birds' and Mttmmal»* 
SkinK^ with full scientific d;da. Correspon- 
dency Tsolieited. 

SANTA CRUZ, CAL. 
CARIBOU. 

EXTKA LAftCE IJUCK; fine anikrs, pcH ^jcrfcct^ m-w in 
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WILSON MSS. FOR SALE. 



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cohoL Full iliila in ^U casfs, Writt- for prjcc-liHt. 

EXCHANGE. 

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have to of^er. 

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Vol. XVIII. 



HYDE PARK, MASS., AUGUST, 1893. 



No. 8. 



Distribution of the Yellow-Headed 
Blackbird in Illinois. 



Winnebago County, No. 3. 

J. E. Dickinson. Has never observed it, 
but has seen specimens which were shot in 
the Kiswanke Bottoms, about ten miles south 
of Rockford. 

F. A. Gregory. Has not observed it. 

Lake County, No. 6. 

Gordon Schanck. An abundant summer 
resident. Arrives in the latter part of March 
or the first of April ; departs in October or 
November. Breeds commonly in sloughs, 
from May 15 to June 15. Nests attached 
to reeds i J^ to 2 feet above the water. Eggs, 
5 ; incubation about two weeks ; one brood. 

O. H. Swazey. Has not observed it, but 
hears that it is found within ten miles of 
Lake Forest in some swampy regions. 

Lake and Cook Counties, Nos. 6 and 7. 

W. E. Pratt. Common summer resident. 
Found in colonies at Calumet and Mud 
Lakes, Cook County, and Grass lake, Lake 
County. Commences laying at Grass Lake 
the first of June and about a week earlier at 
Calumet and Mud Lakes. Has never found 
them at any of the various small sloughs, and 
regards them as restricted to the above 
named lakes. Eggs 3 or 4 ; only one set 
of 5 ever observed. Has found a Cowbird's 
egg in a nest of this bird. 

Cook County, No. 7. 

George B. Holmes. Summer resident; 
fairly common. Breeds in swamps. 

F. L. Charles. Breeds abundantly at Cal- 
umet Lake. Does not occur near Austin as 
there are no large sloughs in that locality. 



H. Gillingham. Has not met it near 
Oak Park. 

D. A. Young. Summer resident. Arrives 
the first part of May, departs during October. 
Found in colonies in the larger marshes, 
where it breeds commonly in the latter part 
of May or first of June. 

" Birds of North-eastern Illinois." E. W. 
Nelson. Cook and Lake Counties. "Very 
common summer resident in large marshes. 
Arrives the first of May, commences nesting 
the last of this month. Owing to the re- 
stricted localities inhabited by this bird, it is 
very slightiy known among the farmers, even 
those living next the marshes generally think 
it an uncommon bird." 

Du Page County, No. 10. 

B. F. Gault. Considers it rare in Du Page 
County. Reports that it is a common sum- 
mer resident at Calumet Lake, Cook County, 
and found sparingly in Fox Lake region, 
Lake County. 

DeKalb County, No. 10. 

L. VV. Nichols. Summer resident, but found 
sparingly on account of the absence of suit- 
able localities for nesting. Very common in 
McHenry County, No. 5, where it breeds 
around the lakes and sloughs. Earliest 
breeding date May 22 ; latest July 24 ; eggs 
4 to 6. 

Davenport, Iowa, opposite No. 15. 

B. H. Wilson. Has never observed it. 
Said to breed in a small slough near Musca- 
tine, Iowa, but did not find them on a visit 
in August. 

Henry County, No. 16. 

Dr. A. C. Murchison. Summer resident. 
Arrives last week in March. Abundant in 



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no 



ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. 18-N0. 8 



the northern portion of the county ; rare in 
the southern. Breeds commonly in the 
latter half of May or first of June. Over 200 
nests found in one day. Eggs invariably 4 ; 
one brood. 

La Salle County, No. 18. 

A. Hamfeldt. Has not observed it, al- 
though there are many prairie sloughs in the 
vicinity. 

Marshall County, No. 25. 

R. M. Barnes. Summer resident; rare. 
Never found it breeding in the county, but 
it breeds commonly a few miles north of the 
county line (Putman County, No. 24). One 
brood raised; date of nesting depends on 
the stage of the water. Has taken eggs from 
June I to July 6. 

Stark County, No. 26. 

V. Chase. Has not observed it. 

Keokuk, Iowa, opposite No. 31. 

E. S. Currier. Has seen but one, which 
was with a flock of Crackles. Reports that 
it is said to have been seen late in May at 
Grove Pond, Clark County, Mo. 

Clark County, Mo., opposite No. 31. 

C. P. Fore. A rare bird. One or two 
individuals observed in the spring of 1888. 
Formerly observed in company with the Red- 
wings. 

Fulton County, No. 33. 

W. S. Cobleigh. Transient. Can be seen 
associating with flocks of Cowbirds and 
Crackles in the spring migration. Does 
not remain to breed. 

Dr. W. S. Strode. Has not observed it. 

Peoria County, No. 34. 

B. F. Bolt. Transient but rare. Has 
never found it in the summer and does not 
consider it a breeder. 

W. E. Ix)ucks. This bird passes through 
this locality in very limited numbers accord- 
ing to my observations. 

Tazewell County, No. 36. 

D. Meixsell. Has observed it in flocks 
of other Blackbirds in the spring migration. 

Vermillion County, No. 40. 

G. C. Pearson. Summer resident. Ar- 



rives with the Red-wings in parties of 30 to 
100 birds. Departs in September in im- 
mense flocks. Nests in sloughs and feeds 
on seeds and small grains and insects. 

Logan County, No. 45. 

Charles Wells. Reports no swamps in his 
locality (Atlanta) and so has not observed it. 

Morgan County, No. 54. 

C. F. Tindall. Does not mention it in 
his report. 

Madison County, No. 73. 

List of birds, etc. Julius Hurter. A rare 
transient. May 4 one specimen. 

Bond County, No. 74. 

Philo Smith, Jr. "One bird killed in 
Carlysle and several seen in Fulton County." 

St. Clair County, No. 75. 

W. L. Jones. "A very rare visitant; 
does not breed." 

O. Widmann. Regards it as a rare strag- 
gler. Single individuals, females, were met 
May II, 1882, and May 9, 1885, in com- 
pany with Bobolinks and female Red-wings. 

Marion County, No. 77. 

C. B. Vandercock. Has no record of it. 

Perry County, No. 88. 

J. C. Elliott. Has no record of it ; is not 
acquainted with it. 

Gallatin County, No. 92. 

C. J. Lemen. Has not observed it. 

G. W. Rearden. Transient. Passes 
through in April and May in flocks of 5 to 
20 individuals. 

Jackson County, No. 95. 

Prof. L. E. Baird. Has not met it. 

A species of irregular distribution and re- 
stricted to certain localities. 

The geographical range of this bird in Il- 
linois is difficult to define. Essentially a 
bird of the prairie sloughs, its restriction to 
them accounts for its irregularity in the state. 
Although Illinois is generally considered a 
prairie state, the settlement of the country, 
the drainage and cultivation of the land has 
caused the rapid eUmination of many of these 
prairie sloughs. Consequently the resorts of 
the Yellow-headed Blackbird are few and far 



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August, 1893.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



Ill 



between. The river sloughs, in close prox- 
imity to wooded districts, seem to be avoided, 
but those bordering open lakes and rivers are 
undoubtedly its rendezvous. As Mr. Ridg- 
way has said, " the geographical range of the 
Yellow-headed Blackbird is quite co-exten- 
sive with the treeless districts of the western 
half of the continent." 

Referring to the reports, we find it reported 
from counties 5, 6 and 7 as very abundant; 
in No. 8, considered rare ; in No. 10, found 
sparingly. Here we have a group of five 
counties, in three of which the bird is abun- 
dant, and two in which it is found sparingly. 
The numerous lakes and large sloughs in the 
former three, and the absence of them, com- 
paratively, in the latter two, is evidently the 
cause of this. Reported from No. 3 as not 
found near Rockford, but has been found in 
the Kiswanke Bottoms, ten miles south. Re- 
port from Davenport, Iowa, opposite No. 15, 
clearly indicates its rarity in that vicinity 
In No. 16, reported as found in great abun- 
dance in the northern part of the county, 
and its comparative absence in the southern 
portion quite conspicuous. Due to the 
northern portion having extensive sloughs. 
From Ottawa, on the Illinois River, No. 18, 
reported as not found, although there are 
numerous prairie sloughs. Inasmuch as this 
county is quite large, and being represented 
by only one report, that from the central por- 
tion, I think the bird may be found breeding 
in some other part of it. I am strengthened 
in my belief as Mr. Barnes reports it as breed- 
ing commonly in No. 24. In No. 25, re- 
gards it as a rare summer resident. From No. 
26, reported as not found, probably owing 
to the absence of marshy districts. In the 
vicinity of No. 31, reports show that it is of 
rare occurrence, evidently passing as a tran- 
sient. In the central part of the state, in 
Nos. 33, 34 and 36, reported as a rare mi- 
gratory bird. From No. 40, Mr. Pearson 
writes that it is a summer resident. In the 
southern half of the state it seems to be of 
rare occurrence, if fo\;nd at ajl. No record 



of it from Nos. 77, 88 and 95. In the vi- 
cinity of St. Louis, reported as a rare straggler, 
but from No. 92 it is said to pass through as 
a migrant. Perhaps the Wabash River is ac- 
countable for this, as it is the highway for 
many transient species. I quote the follow- 
ing from Mr. Ridgway's excellent work, " Or- 
nithology of Illinois " : " The Yellow- headed 
Blackbird appears to be confined to the prairie 
districts of the northern portion of the state ; 
at least there seems to be no record of its 
occurrence elsewhere. The writer thought he 
once heard its note at Mt. Carmel, but was 
unable to discover the bird and may have 
been mistaken ; but he was never able to find 
it on the prairies of Richland County, in 
marshy situations where the red-wings were 
abundant." While glancing over the list of 
birds observed in the middle and southern 
parts of the state by Robt. Kennicott, I find 
the following concerning the Saffron-headed 
Blackbird : " This bird I observed near Van- 
dalia in July. I am informed that it nests 
in various parts of Southern Illinois." Van- 
dalia is in Fayette County, No. 67, and if 
the bird was found here in July, it certainly 
must have been breeding. This list was pub- 
lished in the year 1855, and we would prob- 
ably err should we suppose that the present 
range of this bird is the same as it was thir- 
ty-eight years ago. However, it may yet be 
found in certain portions of the southern half 
of Illinois, but we are yet to hear of it. 

The reports do not contain sufficient in- 
formation on the migration of this species to 
permit dwelling on the subject. In the spring 
migration, the Yellow-head mingles with the 
Red-wings, Crackles, Bobolinks and Cow- 
birds. Mr. Pearson writes that the Yellow- 
heads arrive in the spring with the Red-wings, 
and depart in the fall in immense flocks. 
Mr. Widmann communicates that he observed 
female Yellow-headed Blackbirds in company 
with Bobolinks and female Red-wings. The 
recognition of this bird is not difficult, being 
easily identified at sight. It is not to be 
overlooked, if to be found, as it is quite con- 



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spicuous among other birds, especially the 
Blackbirds. 

Due allowance must be given to such ob- 
stacles as work of this nature has to contend 
with, such as the vacant localities not repre- 
sented by reports, the ability of the observer 
and the amount of experience each has had. 
However, summing up the reports we have 
on hand, we have the following : 

The distribution of the Yellow-headed 
Blackbird is subject entirely to the character 
of the country. The sloughs on the prairies 
and surrounding open lakes and rivers are its 
habitat. It may be found breeding in a cer- 
tain slough, whereas in another, apparently 
just as suitable to its requirements, it is to- 
tally absent Prefers large sloughs to small 
ones. In Illinois its distribution is not gen- 
eral, and very irregular in that portion wherein 
it is a summer resident. In the southern half 
of the state occurs a transient species, and, 
according to reports, is extremely rare, and 
in some localities has not been found at all. 
It may possibly be found as a rare winter 
resident in the extreme southern portion. 
In the northern half of the state it is restricted 
to favorable localities where it breeds. Found 
in great abundance in the counties adjoining 
Lake Michigan, especially so at Calumet and 
Grass Lakes, and in the northern part of 
Henry County, No. 16. So restricted is it 
to the localities wherein it inhabits, that a 
casual observer, even in the neighborhood of 
its resorts, would consider it a rare bird. 

IV. E, Loucks, 

Peoria, 111. 

Nesting of the Saw-whet OwL 



As the nest of the Saw-whet Owl is con- 
sidered quite a find and I have had the good 
fortune to take several sets, I will give some 
of my experience in that line, thinking it may 
interest the readers of the " O. & O." About 
two miles from this village is a tract of mixed 
timber land of 100 acres, more or less, com- 
posed of about three-fourths hard and one- 
fourth of soft wood timber, containing many 



old growth trees and old stubs, a favorite re- 
sort for Hawks and Owls. Previous to this 
season I had taken two sets of Saw-whets 
from an old maple stub in this piece of woods 
and last season found the nest in the same 
place, containing young birds. As this brood 
was raised unmolested, I thought my chances 
for taking a set from the same nest were 
excellent this season. After three visits to 
the stub this year I made up my mind that I 
should have to look in some other tree for 
my Saw- whets, as I had seen nothing of them 
and it was getting later than the usual time 
for their nests. I was thoroughly acquainted 
with this locality, but it is something of a 
task to search carefully a piece of timber of 
this extent, and after a long and diligent 
hunt I began to think that my collection 
would not be enriched by the eggs oiNyctala 
Acad tea. On approaching an old beech stub 
I was suddenly surprised to see the round 
head of an Owl looking down at me from an 
old Woodpecker's hole twenty feet from the 
ground. At this sight my spirits went up 
and at the same time my coat and vest came 
off and I prepared to "shin" up to the 
nest. Perhaps some of you know how easy 
it is to shin a tree that the bark has peeled 
from and left smooth as a flag staff. Add to 
this the fact that the stub was two feet in 
diameter and it is not very surprising that I 
came down suddenly after an ascent of eight 
or ten feet. I also discovered after two trials 
that the tree would not be safe for anyone to 
climb to the top of, as it leaned quite a little 
and was nearly rotted off at the base. This 
put a different aspect on the matter, and I 
began to devise some way by which to get 
the eggs which I felt sure were waiting for 
me at the bottom of that old nest. 

I decided that I should want at least a 
rope and an axe ; so I went home and got 
these articles and returned with a man to 
assist me. The first thing was to put the 
rope around the tree and take a loop in it, 
then push the rope as far up the tree as we 
could reach with a pole, nearly twenty feet. 



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Then I took the other end of the rope and 
climbed a small tree a few feet from the stub 
and fastened it so that the stub could not fall 
in the direction that it leaned. We then 
cut several poles and propped the stub on all 
sides as high as we could make them hold. 
After this we cut a larger pole with a crotch 
at the top and leaned it against the stub, this 
pole reaching within four feet of the nest. 

All my preparations being made I now 
proceeded to climb the large pole, the Owl 
watching me all the time. When I got with- 
in a few feet of the nest she dropped back 
out of sight and did not show up again. Be- 
fore reaching into the nest I took the pre- 
caution to put a glove on my hand, knowing 
that Owls have pretty good claws. At the 
same time I reached into the nest the Owl 
reached up and grabbed me by the finger 
with both claws, I promptly pulled her out 
and gave her a toss and reached in again 
prepared to take out an egg. I was doomed 
to disappointment, however, as the nest was 
empty. I was a good deal surprised, as it was 
fully two weeks later than when I found the 
nest with young last year. After all this 
work I thought I would leave the rope for a 
few days to see what the Owl would do, 
hardly thinking it would return to an empty 
nest after being so rudely thrown off. At the 
end of a week I returned and found the same 
Owl staring down at me >vith the same sur- 
prised expression. This time I was in better 
luck and found four fresh eggs and three 
dead mice in the nest. I confiscated the 
eggs, leaving the mice for nest eggs, and 
three days later took two more eggs from the 
nest. 

Passing by the nest about two weeks later 
I saw the Owl again and was very much sur- 
prised to find four more eggs, slightly incu- 
bated. These I took against my wife's most 
vigorous protests, as she thought I ought to 
be satisfied with one set from this pair of 
birds, but Saw-whet Owls do not nest in 
every stub, and I thought a bird in the hand 
was worth several in the bush. I have not 



been past the nest since and do not know 
whether the Owl kept on laying in the same 
nest, but shall visit it in the spring and hope 
to find her at home. It was surprising how 
the Owl returned to the nest after being 
thrown off at least five times and robbed of 
her eggs three different times. Each time 
she followed the same course, crouching to 
the bottom of the nest and fighting for her 
treasures, and after being thrown off would 
dash past within a few inches of my head, 
trying to frighten me away. 

I took a set of Red-bellied Nuthatch in 
much the same manner as the Owls* nest. 
It was in a shaky fir stub, about twenty feet 
up, and would not begin to bear my weight, 
so I took along a boy weighing about sixty 
pounds. I cut a small fir* sapling, which 
reached nearly to the nest, and held it up 
against the stub while the boy scrambled up. 
He then rested on the top of the sapling 
while he whittied out the nest and took eight 
fresh eggs. In taking a set of broad-winged 
Hawk from a huge birch it was necessary to 
carry a twenty-five foot ladder a mile. Two 
fresh and handsomely marked eggs made 
this a very satisfactory piece of work. The 
way of the collector is hard and fraught with 
many difficult and dangerous climbs, but 
when success has crowned your efforts it is 
pleasant to think how some of your treasures 
were earned. J^red B, Spaulding, 

Lancaster, N.H. 

Bird Notes from Western North 
Carolina. 



July I St, of the present year, I took an 
excursion to Craggy, a large mountain near 
Asheville. Following is a list of birds ob- 
served on the mountain : Black- throated 
Blue Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, 
Arcadian Flycatcher, Wood Thrush, Caro- 
lina J unco, Carolina Chickadee, Tufted Tit- 
mouse, Indigo Bird, Bluebird, Mountain 
Solitary Vireo and Robin. Robins and 
Juncos were the only birds at the summit of 
the mountain. 



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On the same day I found a nest of the 
Carolina Juncos. It contained two eggs, 
and was situated under an overhanging bank 
beside a much-used trail. One egg was 
spotted with reddish-brown, sparingly on 
sides and small end, heavily on large end. 
The other was also spotted with reddish- 
brown, but the spots formed a ring around 
the large end. The nest was made of root- 
lets and horsehairs, which last were probably 
obtained from the horses pastured on the 
mountain. 

Robins are not very common here in sum- 
mer, but their numbers are increasing every 
year. 

A few years ago Wild Turkeys nested on 
a spur of a certain mountain not far from 
Asheville. Minot Davis, 

Biltmore, N.C. 



Austin F. Park. 



The death of Austin Ford Park occurred 
yesterday afternoon at his residence, 62 
Seventh street, after an illness since Au- 
gust from typhoid fever. The deceased had 
been a resident of this city more than fifty 
years and was widely known as one of the 
most devoted and best informed ornithol- 
ogists. For many years Mr. Park had been 
a successful solicitor of patents, having had 
an office in the Board man building since 
1854. His work in this line had brought 
him in contact with some of the most prom- 
inent inventors of the country. He was a 
kindly, genial man, and possessed the affection 
of a wide circle of friends. 

Mr. Park was born in Canaan, Columbia 
County, May 11, 1825, and after a prepara- 
tory education in the common schools and 
at the Columbia boarding school at Chat- 
ham he came to this city and entered the 
Rensselaer polytechnic institute in May, 
1840, receiving in September of the same 
year a certificate, signed by Professor Amos 
Eaton, that he was well qualified for the 
degree of civil engineer but was not old 



enough to come under the law. Mr. Park 
continued a student of engineering, astrono- 
my and other branches then a part of the 
institute curriculum until March, 1841, 
when he received the degree of civil en- 
gineer. The young engineer did not leave 
the institute on receiving this degree, but 
remained as a student of chemistry, geology, 
botany and natural history through the 
summer terms of 1841 and 1842, laying 
then the foundation of that exceptionally 
large fund of knowledge which served him 
so well in after years and was the founda- 
tion for the taste for scientific subjects 
which was a pre-eminent, characteristic of 
his life. Mr. Park remained as a student 
and assistant teacher at the institute through 
the winter terms of three years, and in 1 843 
and 1844 was engaged in engineering and 
surveying in and near this city. In March, 
1845, the institute honored him with the 
degree of Master of Arts. In the succeed- 
ing May he entered the employ of Phelps & 
Gurley, with which firm he remained for 
nine years, engaged in making mathematical 
and philosophical instruments. During this 
time he invented and patented several tele- 
graph instruments. After severing his con- 
nection with Phelps & Gurley, Mr. Park com- 
menced business as a solicitor of patents, 
the practice of which profession he contin- 
ued until the illnegs which caused his death. 

Mr. Park was married in 1857 to Miss 
Caroline Esther Wood, daughter of Aaron 
Wood of this city. Mrs. Park survives her 
husband. 

For many years Mr. Park was a commis- 
sioner of deeds of the city. He was one of 
the founders of the Troy scientific associa- 
tion, and had occasionally lectured before 
that organization, his addresses being listened 
to with great interest. 

Mr. Park was captain of company G, 
twenty-fourth regiment, N. G. S. N. Y., from 
December, 1869, until March, 1873. 

Mr. Park was the possessor of one of the 
finest collections of birds in the country. 



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The collection, many specimens of which 
were found by himself, embraced nearly 
every species of bird life in North America, 
and even now, in its apparently perfected 
state, was considered by Mr. Park still un- 
finished, so devoted was he to his wish for 
a collection that would be second to none. 
It was not an uncommon thing for him to 
be seen tramping through the woods and 
marshes in this locality in search of new 
specimens. He possessed an almost infinite 
fund of information concerning the habits of 
the denizens of the air. His collection is 
estimated to be worth from S8,ooo to ^10,- 
000. Mr. Park has furnished the informa- 
tion for several interesting articles on birds 
which have appeared in the "Times." 

The funeral services will occur from Mr. 
Park's late residence to-morrow afternoon 
and will be private. The burial will be at 
Oakwood cemetery. — Troy, N,!',^ Times, 



A Peculiarity in the Nesting Habits 
of the Virginia Rail. 



Although I have talked with a large num- 
ber of persons and read quite a few books on 
this bird {Rallus virginianus), I have been 
unable to hear of, or find, a feature in the 
nesting-habits similar to the following. 

The first instance of the kind that has 
come under my notice, occurred on May 30, 
1 89 1. My brother and I were hunting in a 
small marsh in the vicinity of Dedham, Mass., 
for Rail's nests in particular. We had not 
been long at work when my brother called 
out to me that he had found a Virginia's nest 
with nine eggs. Being at some distance, it 
took me perhaps three minutes lo reach him. 
While I was on the way, he had been hunt- 
ing within a few yards of the nest and, when 
I came up, we immediately went to it. To 
our surprise and, at the moment, disgust we 
saw the old Rail standing among the eggs 
and, in the most cool and deliberate manner 
spearing them with her long bill. We made 
no delay in driving her off but not before she 



had completely smashed three of the eggs, 
and driven her bill clear through another 
without otherwise injuring it. We have the 
remaining six still, and in my eyes, on ac- 
count of the eggs drilled by the bird herself, 
they are more valuable than a full set of nine 
which lies beside them. By the way, nine 
eggs is the regulation set laid by the Virginia 
Rail in these parts, although occasionally 
seven makes a full set. 

The peculiarity of the above mentioned 
marsh is the strictness of the society, one 
might call it, kept by the birds there. While 
Virginia Rails and Short-billed Marsh Wrens 
(^Clstot/iorous stellar Is) abound there, I 
have never seen a Sora Rail {Porzana Car- 
olina) nor a Long-billed Marsh Wren ( Cis- 
tothorous palustris) nor have I heard of 
one ever being seen there. This is all the 
more strange, as a marsh not a mile and a 
half distant is reasonably well stocked with 
all four birds. This has nothing to do with 
the subject, it is true, but it has always seemed 
so singular to me that I do not omit it. 

Since the nest first mentioned, 1 have found 
a large number ; my brother has also done so. 
In each case we were careful to handle the 
eggs and place them in different positions to 
see if the art of fencing would be repeated ; 
but, until this year, the birds simply re- 
arranged the eggs and continued to set. The 
second and last case of the kind happened 
while hunting in a different marsh in the 
early part of last June. 1 had been hunting 
for Marsh Wrens' nests but had found nothing 
of importance but a few Short- bill "decoys," 
which I marked, until my dog showed me a 
Virginia's nest containing the remains of nine 
eggs, which had all been broken in the same 
manner as those in the first nest. In some 
of these eggs the damage done amounted to 
very little more than a thrust clean through, 
but the majority were badly broken. I am 
sorry to say that no reason can be given for 
this case, as the eggs had been washed clean 
by recent rains, leaving the residue in the 
bottom of the nest, which proved that the 



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breaking had taken place some time before 
I found them. I forgot to mention that, in 
the first instance, neither the eggs nor the 
nest were in any way disturbed beyond part 
ing the grass above in order to see the eggs 
distinctly. 

I will add here that if Short-bill " decoys " 
are found in June, it is well to mark them 
and pay another visit about the middle of 
July, as of the nests just mentioned one held 
seven eggs and another six when visited 
about a month later. J. II. Boivles. 

Ponkapog, Mass. 



August Nests and Birds. 

During the last twenty days of August I 
found and examined eighteen nests of the 
American Goldfinch, or Thistle-bird. All 
were situated in untrimmed hedges of osage 
orange, growing from eight to fourteen feet 
high, and within a radius of two miles from 
town. Other observers note this bird's nest- 
ing in orchards, especially in young apple 
trees, but I carefully explored all the or- 
chards in this neighborhood without finding 
a single nest of the Goldfinch except in 
hedges. The nests were usually placed 
about three-fourths the height of the hedge, 
on an obliquely ascending branch, fastened 
around it and smaller outgrowing twigs. One 
nest was saddled on a horizontal limb and 
was not supported by smaller twigs, though 
several thorns aided in giving a firm base to 
the structure. There is much variation in 
the construction of the nests, especially in 
the external depth, which ranges from two 
to nearly four inches. One nest, made of 
fine bark fibres, was well rounded and closely 
woven, and covered without with fragments 
of gossamer, which gave it a grayer appear- 
ance than most of the other nests. Within 
was a layer of whitish horse hair, and within 
the latter was the downy bed of thistle. An- 
other nest contained many fibres of a yel- 
lowish brown bark, had no hair in its lining, 
and its cavity was larger and deeper. One 



nest had much dried " pepper-grass " woven 
into its walls. The female sitting upon the 
nest is not easily alarmed, but when driven 
from her home she will perch upon an ad- 
jacent limb and utter the syllables ^^pee fee^'' 
oft repeated in a very plaintive tone. No 
nests were found containing more than five 
eggs, which seemed to be the usual full com- 
plement. In all cases the eggs were fresh, 
except one set of four and another of three 
heavily incubated. Three nests contained 
young recently hatched, and several more 
nests were in various stages of construction. 

Another late- nesting bird is the Yellow- 
billed Cuckoo. Within the second and third 
weeks of August I found seven nests of this 
species, all in the hedge above described. 
In all cases the nests were placed on hori- 
zontal branches, frequently where two cross- 
ing limbs gave a firm foundation for the 
loose structure made by this builder. The 
nest was usually at a point above half the 
height of the hedge. It is a loosely con- 
structed affair, though firmer and deeper 
than the nest of the Mourning Dove, and 
quite similarly situated, and the Cuckoo sit- 
ting upon the nest, when approached from 
the rear, may be easily mistaken for the 
Dove. One nest was built of heavy sticks 
and roots, some of which were one-fourth of 
an inch in diameter and eight inches long, 
laid loosely together, with dried leaves, com 
husks, grapevine bark and rootlets inter- 
mixed. The cavity was three inches across 
and one inch deep, though most of the nests 
were shallower. Another nest had for bed- 
ding two inches of corn silk, with many 
stalks of the com bloom or tassel laid among 
the sticks. Four of the nests each contained 
three fresh eggs, two nests contained two 
fresh eggs each, and the remaining nest held 
two newly hatched young, one egg just 
hatching and one decayed egg. 

Late nests of the Black- throated Bunting, 
" Dickcissle," were placed in untrimmed 
hedges at distances from the ground varying 
from five to eight feet. I found four such 



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nests in the hedges on two sides of a square 
six-acre lot grown with weeds, in the edge of 
the town. These nests were made externally 
of dried "pepper- grass," a middle layer or 
wall of coarse weed fibres, with a linning of 
fine dried grass or horse hair. Nests found 
in June were from six inches to two feet 
from the ground, in low bushes. 

The deserting of their nest by some species 
is a curious phase of bird-life. In August I 
found many such nests of the Red-winged 
Blackbird and of the Black- throated Bunt- 
ing, containing from one to four eggs exter- 
nally perfect though with addled contents. 
This has been an eminently dry season, and 
it is well known that some birds will desert 
their eggs and even their young under such 
circumstances. My attention being called 
to the deserted nests of these two species in 
this month, a possible explanation has sug- 
gested itself to my mind. These species are 
more or less sociable in their nesting habits, 
and both cease nesting in our locality early 
and suddenly. After August i st the voice of 
" Dickcissle," heard incessantly till that time, 
became suddenly silent, though the species 
remained to skulk in the hedges and weeds 
for another month. The Red- winged Black- 
birds left in flocks about the beginning of 
August, though they passed and repassed, and 
are even still here today. With both species 
nesting came to an abrupt end when many 
individuals were yet incubating, but the in- 
stinct of sociability and migration overcame 
the maternal instinct and consequently nests 
were deserted in order that the owners might 
depart in company with their fellows or join 
them in their manner of life. 

It is a matter of surprise to many students 
of bird life that the Red-winged Blackbird 
frequentiy nests away from the vicinity of 
water. In this locality orchards are favorite 
nesting places of this species, without regard 
to the vicinity of water, though colonies of 
these birds occupy the swamps also. It 
nests frequently in hedgerows, such nests 
being usually solitary, while every orchard 



hereabouts has its family or colony of Red- 
wings. P. M, Silloway. 
Virden, 111. 



The Downy Woodpecker an Enemy 
of the Codling Moth. 

It is an accepted fact, I believe, among 
ornithologists and entomologists, that the 
Downy Woodpecker feeds upon the larva of 
the Codling Moth. I was not aware, though, 
until a few days ago that the larva were ex- 
tracted from the apples. Standing beneath 
a large pippin tree on the morning of July 
25, a fine red- headed male Downy dropped 
down into it; with a loud "good morning'* 
he soon moved out among the outer 
branches, commenced picking an apple and 
quickly pulled out a worm and devoured it, 
then passed along inspecting the apples un- 
til he found one with a little pile of excre- 
mental pellets on the surface, which told of 
the presence of the larva inside, which larva 
was in the stomach of Mr. Downy in less 
time than it takes to tell it. I watched him 
repeat the operation again and again. Never 
once did he open a sound apple. 

It seems a pity that the average farmer is 

so prejudiced against one of his best friends, 

but then its " that darned little sapsucker " 

whose harmless boreings he imagines will 

injure his apple trees. Benjamin Hoag, 

Stephentown, New York. 

— ^■> 

Two barrels of Buffalo horns in the rough 

just received, reminding us of old times. In 

the rough hardly expresses it ; they no doubt 

have lain on the plains exposed to the weather 

for the past twenty years. One would hardly 

believe that by removing the outside they will 

show a jet black, and will take a high polish. 

We believe that the best protection against 
the ravages of Dermestes, in the case of a 
mounted mammal or head, is to wash the out- 
side with a very delicate solution of Arsenical 
soap. We consider that there is absolutely 
no danger to the health from a specimen so 
preserved. 



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THE 

ORNITHOLOGISTp.fS'OOLOGIST 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF 

NATURAL HISTORY, 

ESPECIALLY DEVOTED TO THE STUDY OF 

BIRDS, 

THEIR NESTS AND EGGS, 

AND TO THE 

INTERESTS OF NATURALISTS. 

Under the Editorial Management of 
FRANK B. WEBSTER, . . . Hyde Park, Mass. 
J. PARKER NORRIS, . . . PhUadclphia, Pa. 

PUDUSHED AT THE 

MU8EUM AND NATURALI8T8' SUPPLY DEPOT 

OF THE 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY, 

INCORPORATED, 

HYDE PARK, MASS. 



The O. & O. is mailed each issue to every paid subscriber. 
If you fail to receive it, notify us. 



We hope that our readers will bear with 
patience the delay in our publication. 

We publish with this issue August, Sep- 
tember and October numbers, which will be 
followed by November and December com- 
bined. The general depression in business 
Strikes hard, especially that which may be 
considered a luxury. When the wolf is at the 
door, the demand for land and marine cu- 
rios and bird notes goes down — or up per- 
haps better expresses it. A great number 
of our subscribers have been unable to pay 
for 1893. When the tide turns we hope to 
hear from you. 



Under the McKinley tariff the duty on 
glass eyes was advanced from 45 to 60 per 
cent, and now if the proposed bill is passed 
it will be 35 per cent. This proposed rate 
is certainly enough. We were told a few days 
since that a small maker of glass eyes in this 
country remarked that there would be no 
change in the duty on eyes, as he had good 
friends in Washington who would look out for 
it. Ye gods, think of hearing such a speech in 
broken English. Perhaps all the Ameri- 
can taxidermists are ready to pay extra for 
anyone's good friends in Washington? We 



do not believe in free trade, but in common 
sense — justice to all. 



Harry R. Taylor at one time a favorite 
writer for the "O. & O.," has began a new 
enterprise in the publication of The Nidi- 
ologist, a monthly illustrated magazine de- 
voted to ornithology and oology. While 
published on the Pacific coast, it will con- 
tain notes of interest to the collectors from 
Maine to Florida. The first two numbers 
are clean and bright. We wish Mr. Taylor 
success. 



One of our exchanges refers to a dishonest 
Eastern dealer. We do not question but that 
some one had been " working " the West, but 
it is just a little harsh on all F^astern dealers 
to cast suspicion this way. Name the party. 



" Your publication is not fit for a boy to 
read " was the reply we got from the party 
when we sent a bill for the past year's sub- 
scription. 

In looking over our correspondence we 
found where he had written three times for his 
copy. He was so anxious to get it that he 
could not wait for us to get it out. 



During the past month, a number have 
sent in their subscriptions for 1894, and in 
two cases for 1895, notwithstanding they had 
not received the " O. & O." for 3 months. 
They will receive it for the full time that they 
subscribed for. 



We distinctly announce that no persons in 
our employ, while in Boston, are with us now, 
or are in any way authorized to represent us. 
We have no office in Boston, and do all our 
business from Hyde Park. 



The eastern papers contain many refer- 
ences to an unusual amount of large game 
being taken in Maine this season. We pre- 
sume "Jock" Darling has had his share, for 
there are reports in circulation that he started 
in early. 



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Brief Notes, Correspondence and 
Clippings. 



A boiled deer*s tongue is as fine a morsel 
as one could ask for. Try one. We are 
having them just now. 



Several cub Bears, quite small, have been 
noted in the Boston market in November. 



We understand that the society of the 
American Ornithologists* Union had a meet- 
ing recentiy in the vicinity of Boston. 



A. E. Kibbe, Mayville, N.Y., notes the tak- 
ing of a set of eggs of Red-eyed Vireo; 
unmarked, pure white. 



A large White Owl was seen near the barn- 
yard at Wonson Farm, East Gloucester, Mass., 
Nov. 17. One of the boys shot at him twice, 
but failed to get him. 



A little cyanide of potassium put on the 
tongue of an animal causes almost instant 
death. It is the most humane way of killing. 



Knowing that you are interested in any 
new discoveries in taxidermy, I will describe 
a skin just received. A friend in Illinois, a 
physician, who has imported some Indian 
game birds, sent me the skin of a black par- 
tridge, saying their druggist had tried to 
mount it and hoped it might be of use to 
me. The legs had been cut off at the knees, 
head unskinned and eyes left in. Then a 
piece of stiff brass wire had been run through 
the skull, but only reached half way down to 
tail and was perfectly loose ; then some wads 
of cotton had been filled into the neck, then 
a wire had been run through base of tail and 
fastened into a medium sized cork stopper, 
which had nothing else attached to it. Then 
a stiff brass wire had been run through each 
leg and cut off even with sole of foot; a 
litde cotton stuffed into each thigh round 
the wire, and neither fastened to anything 
else or even bent No stuffing of any kind 



was put in and body left open. No eyes 
except the natural ones; one leg and one 
wing were off when it reached me. In spite 
of all this I have made quite a bird of it, but 
for a mounted bird it beat all I ever saw. 

— H. 



We continually receive letters from part- 
ies asking for a receipt for tanning skins. 
We have tried several and have not found 
them practical. We do know that "Tan- 
nine " will do the work. 



We received during the summer two lob- 
sters, one weighing 17 and the other 19 
pounds. Both were taken at Cape Cod. 
Mounted under convex glasses, they made a 
striking appearance. 



The Wood Thrush. 



From the time that our great statesman 
and ex-president, Thomas Jefferson, who 
*' followed this bird for miles without ever 
but once getting a good view of it," and who, 
"for twenty years, interested the young 
sportsmen of his neighborhood to shoot him 
one," down to the present date of advanced 
ornithology and oology, much has been said 
and written in regard to this favorite bird. 

His beautiful song and habits and their 
nests and eggs have been so often described, 
that it seems almost impossible to say any- 
thing further in regard to this bird which 
would be interesting, especially to the older 
students of ornithology and oology; and 
yet I feel it my duty to make one correction 
in regard to the material of which its nest 
is composed, for the benefit of the younger 
students and more especially for some of the 
older ones, who study more from books than 
from Nature. 

Davie, in his second edition of "Nests 
and Eggs of North American Birds," says 
that its nest is "composed of leaves and 
grasses, with a layer of mud ; " and in his third 
edition, the same author says : " On the out- 
side, it is composed of leaves, grasses, and 



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stems of weeds, which are gathered when wet 
and become solid and firm, and between 
these are tracings of mud." 

Now, in all the years of my careful obser- 
vations, I have never been able to find a sin- 
gle nest of the Wood Thrush which contained 
any mud except where small patches of it 
had adhered to the decayied vegetation used 
in its construction, seemingly more by acci- 
dent than intention. My correction there- 
fore is this, that the solid part of the Wood 
Thrush's nest, usually called mud, is com- 
posed of very old decayed vegetation and old 
rotten wood pulp. I do not make these 
statements to in any way injure Mr. Davie's 
valuable works, for I prize them highly, and I 
think it would be proper here to state that 
various other publications have made the 
same mistake ; and if any ornithologist who 
seems to differ with me on this subject will 
carefully examine the nest of the Wood 
Thrush, I feel sure that he will agree with me 
that no mud is intentionally used in its con- 
struction. James B, Purdy. 

Plymouth, Michigan. 



Falcon Harbor, Bowdoin Bay, North 
Greenland, Aug. 13, 1893. 



Editor " O. & O." : I am writing up my 
correspondence and will drop you a line to let 
you know that we are here all right. I have 
been off on a reindeer hunt all night with 
good success. Mr. Davidson and I spent 
twelve solid hours, the entire night in fact, 
although we had daylight all the time, in 
hunting the deer. We ran across some fif- 
teen or more, but did not get them all by any 
means. You should have seen us skirting 
the edge of the ice-cap, climbing crags and 
fording glacial rivers, clothes and all, with 
our sealskin suits and rifles. I would like 
the pleasure of showing you my fur clothing 
and rifle, the latter a heavy 45 calibre Win- 
chester repeater, the latest and finest make, 
a gift from Lieut. Peary. I am very sure 
that both you and Mr. Brown as well would 



have enjoyed the day we put in at Duck Is- 
lands, where we secured a great number of 
birds and where I found several pairs of 
birds nesting, despite the late date of our 
visit. Previously I had been tramping and 
collecting in Newfoundland, Labrador and 
South Greenland, in fact, I shot the first 
game of the expedition, having secured five 
Black Guillemots and a Kittiwake Gull at 
Holsteinburg. At Godham I secured a quan- 
tity of Snow Buntings, one being in complete 
winter costume, several Lapland Ix)ngspurs, a 
fine pair of Guillemots, and four Ptarmigan, the 
two latter sets forming material for two good 
bird groups. A large quantity of birds and 
eggs were also obtained of the Eskimo. 
Here at Bowdoin Bay we have Snow Bunt- 
ings in plenty. Ravens, Burgomasters, etc ; 
last night on our reindeer trip we secured a 
couple of young Eiders with our rifles, as my 
repeating shot gun had, of course, been left 
behind at camp. A large quantity of King 
Eiders were seen at Upemavik. I would 
like to send you a lot of natural history notes 
and tell you something about this country, 
the ice-cap, glaciers and icebergs — I was 
in swimming within 100 yards of one this 
afternoon — and many other things, but I 
have not got the space nor the time. It is 
quite likely that a couple of us will organize 
an exploratory and collecting expedition soon 
after our return to America ; we are studying 
navigation to that effect, and in addition I 
am making a study of practical meteorology. 
I do not know whether I ever spoke to you 
about Labrador or not, but it is a grand game 
country ; at one place where I visited they 
had killed 1200 deer since Easter, at least 
so I was informed by the Moravian mission- 
aries. I must close now as I have got some 
writing to do for Mr. Peary. You will, I 
know, excuse this writing as I am writing out 
of doors in a sealskin suit. I should be very 
glad to receive a letter from you if you could 
find time to write. George H, Clark, 

Naturalist to Lieut. Peary's Arctic 
Expedition. 



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PUBLISHED BY THE FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY. 

ESTABUSHED MARCH, 1875. 



Singe Copy 
10 cents. 



Vol. XVIII. HYDE PARK, MASS., SEPTEMBER, 1893. 



No. 9. 



Two Days Egging in June. 



Last summer, June 14, 3 o'clock in the 
morning I was at Ames, Iowa, waiting for 
my friend, to whom I had written that I was 
coming to spend a few days with him in the 
field. Knowing that Amon could not be in 
Ames until about five o'clock, I got an early 
breakfast at the Railroad Lunch Counter and 
then started for the woods east of town. 

In the east the sky was tinged with red — 
glorious dawn of day and awakening of bird 
life. The first note comes from the Purple 
Martin; the Pewee, Brown Thrasher and 
Robin soon follows. Now the domestic 
Cock of the barnyard crows loud and lustily, 
cooing of doves in the distance and the 
Cuckoo's notes near by follow in quick suc- 
cession. Bird life begins in earnest — Robins, 
Pewees, Thrushes, Whip-poor-wills, Martins, 
Bluebirds, Kingbirds, Blue Jays, all start up 
at one time, as it seems, and form Nature's 
orchestra. From the fields near by come the 
notes of Meadow Larks, Bobolink and Quail. 
I stand still enraptured at the beauties of 
nature that surround me ; suddenly two wolves 
come running along the ravine at my left and 
arouse me from my reverie. Seeing me, the 
shaggy fellows scamper off on a gallop and 
cross the railroad track further down, just as 
the west bound passenger comes thundering 
along. 

Rap a tap tap. The Woodpecker is at 
work getting his breakfast ; he certainly proves 
the old adage about the early bird catching 
the worm to be true. The mosquitoes by 
this time were out in full force, and " on to 



their job," so I concluded to retrace my steps 
to the station. Arriving at Ames a few min- 
utes later, I was in time to meet my friend. 

The drive to his home, ten miles distant, 
was a delightful one. Willow and osage 
hedges were scattered all along the road — 
favorite nesting places of Thrushes, Doves, 
Robins, etc. 

The first set of eggs that we collected on 
the way to Amon's home was a Catbird's, 
three eggs in set, nest placed in willow. 

Set II. Mourning Dove ; the nest was 
placed in osage hedge. The Turtle Doves are 
common in our locality and can nearly always 
be found feeding in country roadways. 

Set III. Mourning Dove; nest in osage. 
The nest contained only one egg, very small 
in size, .75 X .55. My friend has in his col- 
lection one set of three eggs. 

Set IV. Brown Thrasher ; nest was made 
of twigs, dried leaves, strips of bark and fine 
roots, lined with hair. Three eggs in set, 
thickly sprinkled over the entire surface with 
reddish brown specks. 

Having put this set in my collecting box, 
we drove along leisurely until the notes of an 
Oriole attracted our attention. 

"There he is," said my companion, as he 
pointed to the pretty " Lord Baltimore " 
swinging on a leafy bough, "but I do not 
see the nest." 

We tied the horse and began to investi- 
gate, but could not find the nest. 

We had been looking for the nest about 
five minutes, when a pretty barefooted coun- 
try lassie came out of a little cottage that 
stood by the roadside. Luckily for us, my 



Copyright, 1893, by Frank Blake Webster Company. 



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friend was acquainted with the fair maiden, 
and asked her if she could tell us where the 
Oriole's nest was. Por reply, she pointed to 
a limb right over our heads, and sure enough 
there swung the purse- shaped nest of the 
Baltimore Oriole with the female on the nest. 
The nest was made of strips of fibrous bark, 
strings, hair and wool woven firmly and 
neatly together and fastened to a slender limb, 
showing the marvellous skill by which ele- 
gance and strength are combined. The nest 
and three pretty pale blue eggs, spotted and 
lined with umber, are now in my collection. 
Two of the eggs are finely lined with umber 
on the larger end, the other one is heavily 
marked on smaller end. 

After taking set V., we drove along briskly 
and were at Amon*s home in half an hour ; 
here we rested a while and then started out 
for a day in the fields and woods. 

Set VI. Kingbird ; four eggs in set, creamy 
white, one spotted on larger end with rich 
umber and chestnut red, on smaller end few 
spots of chestnut. The others spotted with 
chestnut red and lilac. 

Set VII. Kingbird ; two eggs in set, blotched 
and spotted with umber, chestnut red and 
lilac. 

Set VIII. Mourning Dove ; two eggs in set. 

Set IX. Brown Thrasher ; three eggs in 
set, ground color, pale greenish, with minute 
specks of reddish brown over the entire 
surface. 

Set X. Red-winged Blackbird ; four eggs 
in set, oval, pale blue, dotted and lined with 
umber and reddish brown on the larger end, 
with shell markings scattered over the surface. 

Set XI. Catbird ; four deep bluish green 
eggs in set. Nest made of dry leaves, sticks 
and twigs, lined with fine roots and grass, 
placed on raspberry bush, three feet from 
ground. 

Set XII. Green Heron ; five eggs in set, 
light greenish blue, elliptical. The herony 
is in a grove of maple trees on the Gibson 
farm and has been their breeding place since 
1888. Squaw creek is the most important 



body of water near the herony, lying about 
one mile to the south-west. Near the creek 
and between it and the herony is a large 
pond ; it is here that the herons get frogs and 
the larvae of several insects, especially those 
of the dragon fly, which lurk in the mud. 
The Green Heron is common in Boone and 
Story counties and can always be found along 
the Des Moines river and Squaw creek, from 
the latter part of April to about the first of 
September. 

During my summer rambles I have often 
seen the silent and motionless fellow stand 
like a statue, with his head drawn in, on the 
lookout for an unfortunate frog or minnow, 
suddenly giving a quick, sure stroke, and all 
is up with poor froggie. 

My friend took eggs from the "Gibson 
Farm Herony" June 3, 1891 ; a set of five 
on May 24 ; and set of six June 6 of the 
same year. In 1892 he took a set of four. 

This is the only place that I know of in 
Story County where the Green Heron breeds. 

Set XIII. Yellow Warbler ; four eggs in 
set, greenish white ground color, spotted, 
forming a wreath around larger end, with 
rich umber, reddish brown and lilac gray. 
Nest cup-shaped, made of slender stems of 
plants, grayish fibres and hair, lined with 
horse hair and plant down, fastened on the 
side of limb and small twig. 

Set XIV. Yellow Warbler ; three eggs in 
set, ground color a decided green, heavily 
marked on larger end with rich umber ; the 
markings on one of the eggs form wreath on 
larger eAd. Nest cup-shaped, made same 
as the one just described with the exception 
of the lining, which is composed mostly of 
horse hair and very littie of the plant down, 
which forms the bulk of the lining of the 
other nest. 

Set XV. Brown Thrasher ; three eggs in 
set, color same as set IX. 

Set XVI. Bob White ; eight eggs in set. 
Nest placed on ground, near fence ; was 
made of dry grasses, weeds and leaves. 
Found another nest (de§^rt^d) with four eggs, 



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Set XVII. Yellow Warbler ; five eggs in 
set. Nest and eggs like set XIII. 

Set XVIII. Yellow Warbler ; four eggs in 
set, beauties ; they are in the " Amon Shearer 
collection," so I cannot describe them. 

Set. XIX. Catbird ; four eggs in set ; in 
the " Amon Shearer collection." 

This was the last set that we took, and by 
6 o'clock we were home, feeling well satisfied 
with our first day's egging. The evening 
was passed pleasantly in telling stories, and 
once in a while friend Amon, accompanied 
by his sisters, would favor us with sweet music. 

It was along towards the "wee hours" 
when Amon and I " turned in " for the night. 
Although tired and sleepy we could not help 
talking about sets taken during the day. 
Amon had just finished telling me about a 
" lucky find " the year before. In return I 
told him of my first set of Great Homed Owl 
eggs. I must have been rattling away for 
about ten minutes, and when all was told I 
asked my companion what he thought of it. 
No answer — his thoughts had gone to the 
" happy hunting ground." 

Our plan was to be out early the next 
morning, so I followed his example and — 
snored. 

Amon was up bright and early the next 
morning ; had his farm work done and col- 
lected set of Catbird eggs before I " tumbled 
out " of bed. 

The set of pretty Catbird eggs was lost ; it 
happened this way : 

When Amon found the nest in the orchard, 
he took the eggs and thought to surprise me 
with his early find. Opening the door of the 
bedroom he placed them on the floor be- 
tween the door and bed. 

About ten minutes later he returned to see 
if I was up (of course I wasn't) ; then he 
walked right in intending to wake me, un- 
fortunately forgetting about the Catbird eggs 
on the carpeted floor. Of course he stepped 
on every one of them. 

After breakfast we started out. Our first 
find w^ four pretty eggs of the Brown 



Thrasher ; nest was placed three feet from 
ground in willow. 

Set XXI. Yellow Warbler ; this set of fine 
eggs is the lightest in color that I have ever 
seen. Three of the eggs have a wreath on 
the larger end, formed by faint spots and 
blotches of drab brown. One has tiny 
specks of lilac reddish brown and umber. 
The other egg is pale blue, with only three 
tiny dots of brown. Nest same as XI V^.* 

Set XXII. Chipping Sparrow; four eggs 
in set, bluish green, spotted with dark um- 
ber, purplish and gray lilac, the markings 
forming a circle on the larger end of two 
eggs. Nest built in wild plum tree and 
made of fine grasses, roots and fibres, lined 
with horse hair. 

Set XXIII. Barn Swallow; five eggs in 
set, white, marked with spots of bright red- 
dish brown over entire surface. Hundreds 
of nests of this beautiful swallow were placed 
under the eaves of the barn where this set 
was collected. 

Set XXIV. Barn Swallow ; six eggs in set, 
color same as XXIII. 

We took the nest belonging with this set 
of six eggs because it was a fair specimen of 
the Barn Swallow's work. It was composed 
of pellets of mud mixed with grasses and 
lined with feathers. 

Set XXV. Yellow Warbler ; four eggs in 
set, greenish white ground color, spotted with 
umber, reddish brown and lilac, forming 
wreath on large end. Nest cup- shaped, 
made of stems of plants, fibres, hair and 
plant down. 

This is the last set that we collected, going 
home early so could we blow them before I 
returned to my home. 

The season was late for a successful col- 
lecting trip, but the ones we did get are 
beauties and much thought of by Amon and 
me. Carl Fritz-IIenning, 

F. H. Holmes, Berry essa, CaL, called 
on us while on his return trip from a pil^i- 
mage to Harry Austen's " den." 



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The Pelicans of Michigan. 



At rare intervals we read of captures of 
Pelicans in Michigan, and these records have 
assumed such proportions as to lead me to 
think that the White Pelican, at least, is no 
more to be considered a great rarity among 
us. Undoubtedly this species is to be found 
in our state each season, but as it may select 
wild and littie known quarters, it rarely comes 
to the notice of competent obser^'ers. 

The species was known in our upper pe- 
ninsula, about 47 degrees, as long ago as 
1856. Two specimens were shot in St. Joseph 
County about 42 degrees north latitude. 
One was taken in St. Clair County, 43** N. 
lat. 82'' 30^ W. long., and is now, I believe, 
in the university museum. Mr. Adolph 
Beerstecher, of Centerville, Michigan, has 
mounted state specimens. Then on page 
143, 1892 "O. & O." is recorded a capture 
at Dorr, Allegan County, Michigan, about 
43° N. lat., 85° 30/ VV. long. 

The White Pelican breeds to the west of 
our state, and was reported from N. Dakota 
for many years, and undoubtedly nests there 
now. It also reaches in its summer range 
well up into the British Possessions. As it 
is preferably a fresh water feeder, it follows 
that there are few, if any, sections of our 
possessions where it may not be found, at 
least as an occasional straggler. The Mis- 
sissippi valley must be, in the main, the 
course of migration to those birds nesting 
in British America and the northern confines 
of our states ; and it follows that singles, 
pairs, and perhaps occasionally small de- 
tached flocks, will be seen during spring and 
fall in Michigan. It is not improbable that 
the species was once found breeding in our 
upper peninsula. 

The Brown Pelican has been embraced 
as a state species by a single collector. The 
late W. H. Collins, of Detroit, Michigan, a 
most reliable observer and capable taxider- 
mist, wrote me that a specimen was captured 
near Romeo, Macomb County, in the spring 



of 1882. If this record is correct, and I 
have never had cause to doubt Mr. Collins' 
observations, then it is remarkable as a 
nothern note, but more surprising as a rec- 
ord from the interior, for the Brown Peli- 
can is eminentiy a salt water bird. The lo- 
cality of this capture, about 43*^ N. lat. and 
83° W. long., is certainly surprising. How- 
ever, reasoning from analogy, we have no 
reason to doubt this record, either from ob- 
servations on the same species near to our 
state, or from notes of many other species of 
salt water birds which straggle to the great 
lake region. Moreover, we know that this 
bird does straggle over the lower course of 
the Mississippi and its tributaries, and we 
cannot as yet give the limits of this occa- 
sional variation. G. Sirrom, 



A Few Observations on the Crested 
Flycatcher. 



The Crested Flycatcher is quite common 
in this district, and as I have taken a great 
interest in these birds, I concluded to form 
a better acquaintance with them this year, so 
I placed a box of the right dimensions in a 
large oak tree in my back yard. The first 
Flycatchers were seen here about April 27. 
On May 13, as I sat on the back porch, a 
pair of Crested Flycatchers came and lit in 
the tree where the box was. From this time 
I watched them carefully. 

I did not see anything more of them until 
May 19. I woke up and looked out to see 
the birds, for I heard them from the tree. 
Yes, they were carrying the first material 
into the box. By the 2 2d the nest was com- 
pleted to my notion, but the necessary article 
had not yet been found. The box was half 
full of grass, chicken feathers, fish scales, and 
rubbish ; but the snake's skin was wanting. 
On the 26th, however, an ample supply was 
found and the nest seemed to be going 
through a renovation, for certain articles 
were thrown out and the snake's skin put 
instead. After about a double handful was 
added the nest was complete. On the morq- 



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of June 2d the first egg was laid, and on 
June 3d another and the third on June 4th. 
This completed the set and the process of 
incubation was commenced. 

The eggs were as heavily marked as any 
I have seen, which fact made me wish to 
take them, but I concluded to let them 
hatch and feel amply repaid that 1 did. 

The female sat the longest on the eggs 
and when she was tired she stepped out on a 
limb, uttered her peculiar cry and flew away. 
The male generally came around before she 
returned, then she would soon relieve him. 
On the 2 1 St of June the eggs hatched and the 
young were fed by both parent birds. The 
time it took to hatch the eggs, as you may 
see, was seventeen days. I don't know 
whether this is a little fast or slow. The 
young were fed on small grasshoppers, katy- 
dids, and other small insects. 

There were innumerable skirmishes with 
Blue Jays. Each one, however, turned out a 
victory for the Flycatchers. They would dart 
at the Blue Jays in much the same manner 
their cousins the King Birds do. The young 
left the nest on the afternoon of June ist. 
They remained about the place for some 
days and then left. I think these birds did 
very well to hatch and rear their young 
under such disadvantages, for there was a 
yard of seven cats that watched them very 
attentively, and every bird escaped from their 
clutches. John C, Brown. 

Carthage, Mo. 

A Vacation in Pennsylvania. 

The twelfth of June saw us seated in a D. 
L. & W. train, speeding across the flat Jersey 
country toward the Water Gap on the Dela- 
ware. Previous to 1893, my summers had 
always been spent in the mountains of north- 
em Vermont, and this southern country of 
Jersey seemed almost tropical. From the 
car window we saw, instead of the familiar 
stone walls of Vermont, picturesque snake 
fences suggestive of Jersey lightning, though 
covered with graceful vines. I afterwards 



found those very vines far from pleasant. 
" But that is another story." 

As our train sped on, we saw the distant 
Blue Ridge come nearer and nearer, until 
we found ourselves looking out on as charm- 
ing a country as can be found anywhere. 
The hills were not high compared to real 
mountains, but they were wonderfully beau- 
tiful, being craggy and wild, covered with 
forest, broken here and there by a little farm. 
As we sped through the woods, I could imag- 
ine it when quiet, with the cautious Fox stand- 
ing on some log, looking up and down the 
track, while a Grouse clucked in alarm at sight 
of him. After a most glorious ride, and what 
was very satisfactory to the inner man, a very 
good dinner, we reached the Water Gap. 
My brother had sent a carriage up from the 
city, and we spent a few minutes in tying it 
securely to Mr. W.'s big wagon ; then step- 
ping in, we had a grand twenty- mile drive 
through the fragrant mountain air, saturated 
with sunshine. As we drove along the ridge, 
we looked down into the Delaware, alternat- 
ing in deep still pools and noisy white rapids. 
Farther on we crossed that famous old trout 
stream where gentle Thaddeus Norris loved 
to fish, the Brodhead. As we rounded a 
curve beyond it, a little flock of dainty Caro- 
lina Doves rose with a soft whistling of wings, 
and, flying up the hillside, we heard them 
cooing to each other with that bell-like plain- 
tive note — wellnigh a song. Once on the 
plateau, we drove through a country dotted 
with farms, with nut trees and orchards along 
the road. There we found the gaudy Balti- 
more Oriole in quantities, all busy as bees. 
We saw a few of Balty's shy cousin, the 
Orchard Oriole, and I heard his song for the 
first time, though he was an old friend of 
my brother's. 

As we rattled along over an excellent road, 
we made inquiries of our host, Mr. W., as to 
getting a horse for the summer. We found 
our advent had created quite a stir, and all 
the old nags of the country had been dieted 
and physicked for a week past. As the re- 



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maining miles dwindled, the sun sank lower 
and lower, and when we reached the Dela 
ware valley again, at the Bushkill, the sun 
was setting, and we heard the wierd piank 
of the Night Hawks overhead. As we drove 
through a shady copse, we heard the liquid 
notes of Whip-poor-will, and soon the valley 
was filled with their sadly musical notes. 
Just before we finished our drive, we heard a 
ghastly gurgling scream, or groan, repeated 
several times, and looking toward the moonlit 
sky we finally saw a small Owl fly out on 
silent wings. I have never identified any owl 
notes with their authors, but I took this to 
be a Screech Owl. 

The next morning I was awakened by a 
rollicking song, and saw a Red-eyed Vireo 
singing away within a couple of feet of my 
open window. Hearing a strange song, I 
dressed hastily and went exploring. It was 
a perfect summer morning, an ideal time for 
an ornithologist to be awake. The air was 
filled with music, and everything^ had an air 
of enchantment, in the early sunlight, that 
made it seem more than ever like a foreign 
country. Surely, I thought, I shall like Penn- 
sylvania more than Vermont ; and now the 
summer is over, I am inclined to think it is 
a fine place and Pike County its best corner. 

Hunting up my strange song I found it 
came from a gorgeous Scarlet Tanager, 
perched on a dead locust limb, within twenty 
feet of the piazza. I looked around for his 
nest, and soon found it, a frail bunch of sticks 
with the mother bird showing through it. It 
was placed in a flat crotch of the same tree, 
in a bunch of verdure hanging directly over 
the road, not over fifteen feet up. As I 
watched the quiet little matron, I heard a 
familiar call, that sad, simple little refrain, 
pee-weey followed by a flutter, and a quick 
snap as a moth went to its doom. I soon 
found Pewee's nest, a dainty lichen-covered 
cup, in an upright crotch in a limb almost at 
the top of the next locust, along the fence. 
Lx)oking lower, I saw a Chipping Sparrow at 
work on a nest, low enough to reach by stand- 1 



ing on the fence. After the little spizellae 
came into the world, I often got up and 
watched them, and when they flew I took 
the nest. 

Going round the house, I saw a Phoebe 
fly hurriedly away from the piazza, and it 
took little search to find the clumsy mud 
nest on the cross beam, with its five little 
gap- mouth birdlings. We watched those all 
summer, too, and missed the little black- eyed 
mother when the brood flew, and she flew 
with them. In a big basswood at the back 
of the house, I heard an Oriole singing away, 
and presently he showed me his swinging 
cradle, not a whit afraid for me to admire it 
from the lowly station I occupied. As I 
reached the com crib there was a clatter of 
wings and a Blue Jay went off up the moun- 
tain screaming yay,yajj,yay, till the moun- 
tains mocked him. In the orchard behind 
the kitchen I heard a sharp chebee^ chebee, 
and found the Least Flycatcher, looking sour 
and glum as though his breakfast was want- 
ing. I began to sympathize with him, and 
went in to prospect, scaring a dainty little 
Hummingbird from the glowing nasturtiums. 

After breakfast my brother and I started 
off fishing, and though we had a very good 
time, we saw nothing of interest to the " O. 
& O." We found Brown Thrashers every- 
where; Catbirds nearly as common, and 
Baltimore Orioles in every orchard. I think 
the best way to give an idea of what we found 
would be to tell what we didn*t find. I 
never saw so many species of birds in so 
short a time in my life ; from the " canaille '» 
of birds to the " noblesse," all had their re- 
presentatives. The common Sparrows, as 
Chippy, Grasshopper, Field, Song, Savanna, 
were dancing around the vines in the fence 
corners, and solitary Kingbirds sat haughtily 
on fence poles. The glorious melody of the 
Wood Thrush came from the forest across 
the field, while the Oriole and Song Sparrow, 
with homelier melody, swelled the chorus. 

The warblers were very few as residents. 
The omnipresent Golden Warbler, the to me 



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rare Parula, were the only ones in the woods 
and fields. In the swampy thickets the 
Maryland Yellow- throat and Golden-crowned 
Wagtail appeared, while on the river banks 
the Redstart and Water Thrush held sway. 
The Bobolink was unknown, the Cowbird 
not common, but both Orioles were every- 
where if you were in their confidence enough 
to find them. Save the Red-tailed Hawk and 
an occasional Sharp-shinned or Red-shoul- 
der, and the lordly White-headed Eagle, the 
Hawk tribe was scarce. What three or four 
species did show up were few in number. 
The Flycatchers were all there (I mean the 
common ones of this latitude and longitude) 
except Traill's and the Yellow-belly. I saw 
one Olive-sided Flycatcher, but the rest, 
even the Acadian, were fairly common. 
Blue Jays were rampant, but Crows scarce. 
I found no Grosbeaks, but only Chewink, 
Goldfinch and Indigo, besides the plebeians 
of the field. Ruffed Grouse were thick, 
Quail and Woodcock neither rare nor com- 
mon. The noisy and meddlesome Robin, 
whom I heartily dislike, was there too ; and 
of the Woodpeckers, the Downy, Hairy and 
Flicker were common, the Pileated rare, and 
the rest unknown to me there. Chicadee 
was a rare resident, though common back in 
the coniferous forest. 

The Red-eyed and Warbling Vireos were 
in great numbers, but those were the only 
ones of their family. The common House 
Wren was the only one I found, though I 
looked for others of the family. Barn and 
Eave Swallows were common ; Bank and 
White-bellied rather rare. Chimney Swifts 
were in great numbers in the many deserted 
houses. The Carolina Nuthatch was fairly 
common ; the Carolina Dove very common. 

On the islands of the river we found the 
Spotted Sandpiper and Green Heron. Here 
also the dashing Kingfisher caught minnows 
and sprung his rattle triumphantly. I think 
that is a pretty accurate list of what birds I 
found resident. There are several rare resi- 
dents I am uQt at all sure Qi in th^ir identifi- 



cation, so I leave that till later. I have said 
nothing about the migrants ; they will come 
later. 

Now about the White-headed Eagle. 
I've heard them slandered most foully, even 
in the school reader, which should be patri- 
otic. I found these magnificent birds fairly 
common, two pairs being within five miles, 
and young ones strung around every>vhere. 
There were a few Ospreys in the river, but 
never have I seen them molested by the 
Eagles. Perhaps it was because dead shad 
were so plenty, but we must give the Eagle 
his due. I never saw those Eagles quarrel 
with anyone, even a Kingbird, whom Job 
would have squabbled with, save one tres- 
passing Eagle, who quarreled over a dead 
fish with one of our young Eagles. Then 
there was screaming and a superb chase, 
wheeling round in magnificent cur\*es, flying 
with a speed that seemed incredible until you 
heard tiie pinions roar as they wheeled. Fi- 
nally the trespasser fled — no, not fled, he 
majestically sailed away, " every inch a 
King." 

I know of no sight more sublime than that 
of an Eagle soaring in one of those contem- 
plative moods they sometimes have, soaring 
in superb great circles, slowly rising until the 
gazer, fascinated, finds the superb fellow 
nearly invisible, and then to hear the wild 
call to the queen, as the royal pair sail away, 
swift as arrows, to their roosting place. I 
believe that sight would make the most pain- 
fully practical person feel a gush of delight — 
that they had been permitted to see our na- 
tional emblem under such perfect conditions. 
I suppose he is a thief and a robber, but he 
is true to his mate, and has so many noble 
qualities that one must forgive the little in- 
consistencies. Herbert W, Cong-dorr, 

Capen's "Oology of New England" is 
nearly exhausted. We know of only 6 co- 
pies in the market; we have 4 and F. H. 
I^tin 2. The price is $15, colored plat^g, 
The platen have been destroyed, 



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Ducks in Southern Wisconsin. 

Probably the greatest sport to be had by 
the hunters of this locality is with the Ducks. 
Nothing, in bird shooting, can be compared 
to ducking, especially shooting over decoys 
when the birds are flying well. We have 
quite a list of ducks here, which I give, hop- 
ing that it may be of interest to ornitholo- 
gists and sportsmen alike. To me it is al- 
ways an interesting group in either way. 

1. Merganser americanus, American 
Merganser ; Sheldrake. This bird is a toler- 
ably common migrant, but is not much hunted 
on account of the rank, " fishy " taste of its 
flesh. 

2. M, serratory Red-breasted Mergan- 
ser. A rare migrant; table qualities same 
as last. 

3. Lopludytes cucullatusy Hooded Mer- 
ganser ; Fish Duck. An abundant migrant, 
and in the fall very fair eating, although in the 
spring the flesh is very fishy, as with the two 
foregoing Fish Ducks. 

4. Anas boschas, Mallard, " Green- 
head " ( ). As fine a table Duck as we 
have; rather a common summer resident 
and an abundant migrant. Rarely decoyed, 
but many are shot in the creeks and ponds 
before the sea-ducks arrive. Late in the fall 
they may be found in the corn-fields. 

5. A. obscura^ Black Duck. A tolerable 
common migrant, having the same general 
habits of the Mallards. 

6. A, amertcana, Baldpate. Common 
migrant. Does not decoy very well and is 
usually taken with long shots. Very good 
eating. 

7. A, caroltnensiSf Green- winged Teal. 
This pretty little Duck is a common migrant, 
arriving early, so as to afford good shooting 
in the rice marshes and small ponds, along 
with the Blue-wing and Wood Duck. Often 
found feeding in company with the Coot and 
Grebe. 

8. A. discorSy Blue- winged Teal. A 
common summer resident ; fine table bird. 



9. Spatula clypeata. Shoveller, Spoon- 
bill. A rare summer resident and tolerably 
common migrant. A few summer in retired 
places and are shot now and then during the 
fall. Said by some sportsmen to be " fools " 
and easily deceived, but all that I have ever 
seen were very wary. A fine table fowl. 

10. Dafila acuta f Pintail, Sprig- tail. A 
tolerably common spring migrant but very 
rare in the fall. Not very often secured of 
late. 

11. Aix sponsa. Wood Duck. This 
Duck is an abundant summer resident of the 
wild-rice marshes and retired ponds, and 
many are shot in the early fall, the sportsmen 
turning out for them on September i, as they 
do for Chicken farther west on the first day 
of the season. Rarely taken in full plumage. 

12. Ay thy a americana. Redhead. A 
tolerably common migrant. Decoys well in 
the spring off the points of the larger lakes. 

13. A, vallisneriay Canvas- back. Tol- 
erably common migrant, but rather late. 
Not many are shot. 

14. A, affints, Lesser Scaup Duck, Blue- 
bill. Rare summer resident, but abundiint 
migrant, sometimes in very large flocks. 
Decoys well and gives good shooting. 

15. A, collar is f Ring- necked Duck, 
Blue-bill. A migrant with the last, and in 
about equal numbers. 

16. Glaucionetta clangula ameri- 
cana^ American Golden-eye, Whistler. Very 
rare summer resident and abundant migrant. 
Decoys well, often diving or swimming into 
the stool. 

17. G, islandica, Barrows' Golden-eye. 
An accidental migrant. Four were taken in 
the spring several years ago on Delavan Lake. 

18. Charitonetta albeola^ Bufliehead or 
Butterball. An abundant migrant, easily 
decoyed. A very beautiful little Duck when 
in full plumage. 

1 9 . Oidemia amertcana, American Sco- 
ter. A very rare visitor during the migra- 
tions. A flock of six appeared this fall on 
November 12. 



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129 



20. Erismatura rubida^ Ruddy Duck. 
A common migrant. Dives well, often com- 
ing up in the decoys when you are looking 
in the air for your game. Easily secured, a 
quick shot usually bags the whole flock. 

21. Chen hyperboreUy Lesser Snow 
Goose. Rather common migrant, though 
rarely taken. 

22. Branta canadensis^ Canada Goose ; 
Common Wild Goose. An abundant migrant. 
Only a few are taken as they light usually in 
the center of the lakes or fields, where they 
are not easily secured. 

In the above list no Ducks are given as 
summer residents where only an occasional 
winged bird remains over from the spring 
migration, as is not rarely the case. 

Ned Hollister, 

Delavan, Wis. 



Notes from Maine. 



One day during last May I was told that a 
boy had collected a set of Mocking- bird*s 
eggs. I immediately went to see him and 
was shown an egg. It was one of four, the 
others having been swapped off, as he told 
me, and they looked to me, so far as I could 
remember, much like the Mocking-bird's 
eggs that I had in my collection. He had 
destroyed the nest and refused to tell me 
where he had found the birds; but I told 
him to look out well for a second set, and to 
let me collect it, as I wished to get birds and 
all. When I next saw him, however, he said 
that he had already collected the second set 
and was saving them for me. I got the eggs 
and also the nest, but the birds were nowhere 
to be seen. On closely comparing the eggs 
with those of the Mocking-bird*s, I found 
them entirely different, but not so much so 
as to make me think them anything else. 
Only a week after I found out that I had 
made a bad mistake, for I found a pair o^ 
Loggerhead Shrikes around the place where 
the nest had been. The four eggs, when 
compared with a set of the White-rumped, 



showed no difference at all. The nest was 
declared a Shrike's on first seeing it and 
without being told about it by a friend, who 
is verv familiar with the breeding of the 
White-rumped. It was placed in the middle 
of a field about seven feet up in an apple 
tree. It is made of horse- hair, cow- hair, cot- 
ton, twigs, grass, string and feathers, one of 
which on the bottom (outside) of the nest 
looks as if it may have come from one of the 
birds. 

On June 10 I collected a fine set of five 
eggs of the Purple Finch. This bird is not 
very rare, but its nests are not often found, 
as they hide them very nicely in the top of 
some thick tree in the woods. I found this 
one, however, in an apple tree, while looking 
for something else. It was utterly impossi- 
ble to see the nest farther off than two or three 
feet, so well was it hidden. 

June ID, a set of Blue-headed Vireos was 
found in a maple within fifty feet of my home. 
The nest was only slightly pensil and was 
about ten feet from the ground and seven 
from the trunk of the tree. When I took 
the set, the bird stayed on the nest until my 
hand was so near that she hit it as she flew 
up. Four eggs. 

On this day I also got a set of Least Ply- 
catchers with six eggs in it. The nest was, 
if anything, a little smaller than usual and the 
eggs were almost crowded as they lay in it. 
I never before heard of a set with more than 
four in it. 

I also got last summer two sets of Indigo 
Buntings — one with three, the other with 
four eggs — and a set of Yellow-billed Cuck- 
oos with two eggs. 

In writing before of the Loggerhead Shrike, 
I intended to say that on April 21, 1891, I 
shot a fine specimen, which is now m the 
collection of Rev. Mr. J. B. Caruthers, of Ber- 
lin Falls, New Hampshire. The bird was 
all alone and seemed to be looking for prey 
of some sort when I shot it. 

yohn Z. Goodale, 
Saco, Me. 



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[Vol. 18-N0.9 



THE 

0RNITH0L0GIST^t'06L0GIST 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF 

NATURAL HISTORY, 

ESPECIALLY DEVOTED TO THE STUDY OF 

BIRDS, 

THEIR NESTS AND EGGS, 

AND TO THK 

INTERESTS OF NATURALISTS. 

Under the Editorial Management of 
FRANK B. WEBSTER, . . . Hyde Park, Mass. 
J. PARKER NORRIS, . . . Philadelphia, Pa. 

PUBU.SHBD AT THE 

MUSEUM AND NATURALISTS* SUPPLY DEPOT 

OF THE 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY, 

INCORPORATED, 

HYDE PARK, MASS. 



The O. & O. IS mailed each issue to every paid subscriber. 
If you fail to receive it, notify us. 



Will the correspondent who sent us some 
time since notes, five pages, headed Larus 
Franklinii, please communicate. We acci- 
dentally separated it from his letter, and 
wish signature for publication. 



INTERESTING TO NATURAL HISTORY COL- 
LECTORS. 

Postmaster Dayton has been informed 
that a proposition submitted by the Post- 
master General to the International Postal 
Bureau to admit specimens of natural history 
to the international mails at the postage rate 
and conditions applying to "samples of 
merchandise ** has been rejected by a vote 
of the countries composing the Universal 
Postal Union, and consequently all such 
specimens (except those addressed to Can- 
ada or Mexico) must be fully prepaid at 
letter rates ; and dried animals and insects 
cannot be sent under any conditions, being 
absolutely excluded by the provisions of the 
Universal Postal Union Convention, regard- 
less of the amount of postage prepaid there- 
on. This will prevent the exchange of such 
specimens between collectors, natural history 
museums, etc., by international mails, and 
no package known to contain them can be 



accepted at a post-office for mailing to for- 
eign countries. 

Natural history specimens (other than 
dried animals and insects) may be sent to 
Canada as " merchandise *' at one cent an 
ounce. They may also be sent by parcels 
post to Mexico and to all other countries 
with which the United States has parcels 
post conventions. 

Brief Notes, Correspondence and 
Clippings. 



And now they are having a Gay old time 
of it in Maine over the question of sto<:king 
up of the state with fowls of the air and 
beasts of the fields. 



" Hornaday*s Taxidermy " is sold all over 
the world. A letter just received from India 
mentions it as being " the book." It is a 
work that should be in the hands of all 
sportsmen, — as the time would certainly 
come when a reference to its pages would 
be worth several times the cost. There has 
been no book published on the subject that 
begins to compare with it. Sent post paid 
from this office for $2.50. 



Is it Mount Tacoma or Ramier? is the 
question that seems to be agitating people 
in Tacoma. The Tacoma Academy of Sci- 
ences says it is Tacoma, and that settles it. 



The "Cyclone" mouse trap for the tak- 
ing of small mammals, is the best one in the 
market. Every naturalist should have them 
on hand, as for the common mouse they are 
the trap of the day. Two by mail post 
paid for 25 cents. 



During the heavy storms this fall two 
records were made of Man-o'-War birds on 
the New England coast. 



Editor "O. & O." : The "O. & O." came 
the other day and now lies on my desk com- 
pletely read through. Where have all the 
old writers gone ? I still see Widmann is in 



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September, 1893.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



131 



the ring, and I believe Preston had some- 
thing in the June number; but where is 
J.M. W.and his"hawky" (Red-tail) notes. 
He has not gone back on the Red- tails, has 
he? Why not something from his quill 
again? Let Preston tell us how he found 
White Cranes* eggs in northern Iowa again 
— would much rather they were another 
set — and stir up the rest of our old writers. 

Shooting along the Illinois has begun, in 
fact it never stopped. Sandpiper and Yel- 
low-legs were quite plentiful along the Illi- 
nois not long ago, and the former are now. 
Jacks have arrived in goodly numbers since 
the rains, and the market has an abundance 
of them. IV. E. Loucks, 

Peoria, 111. 



The " Forest and Stream " issue of Decem- 
ber 21 contains a photograph of a pair of 
Capercailzie mounted by George E. Browne 
of Dedham, Mass., who is connected with us. 



NOTES FROM BERRESSA, CAL. 

I notice in July " O. & O." a correspond- 
ent from Riverside asks about the range 
of the Black Rail. I have seen several on 
the marshes at the southern end of San 
Francisco Bay. While walking along a 
slough at high tide on December i, 1892, 
I flushed two together and secured them 
both. On February 29, 1892, I secured 
another, and also a Yellow Rail. At one 
spot on the marsh near a small stream of 
artesian water I have seen specimens of the 
Black, Yellow, Virginia, California Clapper 
and Sora Rails. I would like to know how 
far west the Yellow Rail has been reported 
as occurring. I have been informed that it 
has never before been taken in California. 

I have taken two and have seen one or 
two others. I see Mr. F. H. Renick, of 
Seattle, Washington, speaks of having never 
seen the Black Swift on any but fresh water. 
A couple of years ago a friend of mine shot 
several flying about the cliffs on Monterey 
Bay, and I have seen those and the White- 



throated near the same place, often in the 
company of Cliff and Violet-green Swallows. 

R, H, Beck. 



The Flight of Birds — A Reply. 

In response to Mr. James Smith's query 
in the July Orntihologist and Oologis^i, I 
would say that the true Falcons are perhaps 
the swiftest aerial navigator among the Avian 
fauna. As to species, we are led by exten- 
sive personal observation to doubt if any bird 
can excel the Duck Hawk in swiftness of 
flight. While seeking and taking the eggs 
of this Falcon we have had ample opportu- 
nity to observe its habits. The rapidity of 
its progress when upon the wing is almost 
inconceivable. At one moment it may be 
within range of an ordinary shot-gun ; in an- 
other, it is a mere speck in the sky ; and in 
a third, it is lost to human vision. Again it 
may be observed to shoot downward from the 
region of the clouds with a velocity compar- 
able to that of an arrow leaving the bow of 
an archer. The Duck Hawk is remarkable 
not only for its swiftness but also for its power 
of flight. It is probable that this bird is 
capable of traveling at a rate of one hundred 
and fifty miles an hour, and it has been as- 
certained with certainty that it can maintain 
for a considerable time a rate of at least one 
hundred miles an hour. Hence it is not 
strange that it is often seen far from any of 
its native haunts and breeding places — a 
fact which gave it the name Peregrine, from 
the Latin peregrinus^ " a wanderer." 

Among other birds which possess great 
power of flight are the Petrels {Procellaria) 
including the Albatrosses, the Stormy Petrel, 
etc., which maintain themselves upon the 
wing for long periods of time. Other oceanic 
birds are remarkable for both power and 
swiftness of flight. An Eider Duck has been 
known to cover ninety miles in an hour. 

Those acquainted with the principles and 
mechanism of aerial navigation can demon- 
strate by physical examination and dissection 
of the species mentioned that they are ana- 



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[Vol. 18-N0. 9 



tomically constructed for great rapidity and 
force of flight. 

For a full description of the nesting habits 
of the Duck Hawk, the reader is referred to 
an article by the writer entitled " Taking the 
Eggs of the Peregrine Falcon,'* in the Ool- 
OGiST for June, 1893. 

y, Hobart Egbert, 



Notes on the Sharp-shinned Hawk. 



The Sharp-shinned Hawk is a resident with 
us, but not at all common, especially during 
the summer months. 

1 have only succeeded in finding two nests 
in a number of years' collecting. 

The first was found about May, 1878, in a 
grove of small pines ; situated in one of them, 
and about twenty feet from the ground. It 
contained five eggs, which I secured. 

About two weeks later, in passing near the 
nest, I decided to take another look at it. 

I did so, and also took a second set of 
eggs from it. There were four in this clutch, 
and they were smaller than the first ones and 
not so finely marked. 

My second nest was found May 29, 1892, 
and discovered to me by the actions of the 
birds, as when I was about fifty yards from it 
they both came flying about me and became 
very noisy. 

This nest was also in a pine tree, close in 
to the trunk and resting at the base of a limb. 

It was thirty-five feet up, and composed of 
pine twigs, without lining of any kind. 

While I was at the nest both birds sat in 
a tree about twenty feet distant and seemed 
very much disturbed at my presence. Sev- 
eral times they darted close to my head and 
perched within a few feet of me, but at the 
least movement would fly off a short distance. 

The eggs, which were very slightly incu- 
bated, were five in number and are as follows, 
the ground color in all being a grayish white : 

No. I. A little more pointed than any of 
the others. Marked mostly about the centre 
with a wreath of burnt umber and russet, the 



rest of the egg being covered with small light 
brown spots: 1.41 x 1.21. 

No. 2. Marked with a broad band of burnt 
umber and russet in the centre, the rest of the 
egg being covered with small light brown 
specks: 1.41 x 1.19. 

No. 3. About one-half marked with burnt 
umber, forming a sort of cap to the egg, the 
balance slightly marked with small spots of 
light brown: 1.41 x 1.17. 

No. 4. Marked about the larger end with 
burnt umber and russet, the rest of the egg 
being covered with splashes and spots of 
light brown: 1.40 x 1.2 1. 

No. 5. In this egg the ground color is a 
clearer white than in any of the others. 
Marked around the centre with a wreath or 
band of russet and a littie burnt umber. 
This is the only egg in the set showing any 
lilac, it having a few splashes of this color, 
principally toward the larger end. It is by 
far the most handsome egg in the clutch. 

In all of them the umber looks as if it had 
been slightly washed in some places. 

Thinking I might take a second clutch 
from this nest, as in the one previously found, 
I went back to it about two weeks later, but 
it was apparently deserted as there were no 
birds to be seen. 

I also looked at it this last spring (1893), 
but without success. 

Two other nests, of which I have record, 
were found in pine trees, one in a cedar tree, 
and one was in a hole formed by the rotting 
of a limb of a chestnut tree. This latter was 
occupied for two consecutive years and then 
the tree was cut down. 

All of these nests were in Baltimore 
County, Maryland. 

William H, Pisher. 

Baltimore, Md. 



E. W. Norcross, of Boston, while on his 
vacation in Vermont, shot a beautiful white 
Robin. It seemed to have been deserted 
by its family and was flying about the fields 
alone. Brewster, 



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OOLOGIST. 



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Single Copy 
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Vol. XVIII. HYDE PARK, MASS., OCTOBER, 1893. 



No. 10. 



A Nest of Hen Hawks. 

Dr. Merriam says that Fish Hawks, A.O. 
U. 364, do not breed as far up the Connect- 
icut river as Hartford, but as they are al- 
ways very common here about the middle of 
April, I thought he might be mistaken. So 
I watched the meadows where they fish 
pretty closely, and also asked my brothers to 
keep an eye open for big nests. As what I 
am going to write has nothing to do with 
Fish Hawks, I may as well say right here 
that, though I once saw one with weeds on 
her feet, we didn't find any nests, and I 
guess that Dr. Merriam knows what he is 
talking about after all. 

The boys had been fishing for Alewives in 
these meadows and, April 22, they told me 
that they had several times seen " a big 
bird, not a Fish Hawk," fly out of a large 
nest which I had watched for the last four 
years without seeing it used. 

So I got my climbers and rowed up there. 
The water sometimes covers this place to a 
depth of fifteen feet, and there is always 
more or less there every spring. I saw the 
bird, a Red-shouldered Hawk I found later, 
and on going up to the nest saw that it had 
been repaired a trifle and contained four 
eggs. They were a dirty white, more or less 
spotted with brown, mostly in small spots 
but some blotches. The spots are no 
thicker at one end than at the other. The 
eggs are about the size of a small hen's egg, 
rounder perhaps. They were almost ex- 
actly like a set of five, well incubated, that I 
took from a neighboring tree on the 30th 
of last April. They measured 2.16x1.66, 



2.20x1.68, 2.18x1.70, 2.04x1.65, and 
2.16 X 1.68. 

By the way, it took me nearly two weeks 
to blow one of those eggs. I had to fill it 
with water and let the infant soften before I 
could get him out. 

As I had those five ah-eady, I decided to 
leave this set in the nest and watch them. 
I found in the nest, beside the eggs, about 
six inches of the tail of a grass snake. The 
old lady had taken it to bed with her ! 

I went away as quietly as I could and 
came back again on the first of May, but 
the eggs had not flown yet. But on the 
8th, when I went next, I thought some- 
thing was the matter before I got to the 
nest, for the female called up her mate, who 
stayed most of the time in a grove of maples 
near by, and together they made quite a 
noise. Each time before she has slipped 
off the nest as quietly as possible. 

On going up I found one egg hatched 
and another with a hole in it three-quarters 
of an inch in diameter. The bird's bill was 
moving about weakly but he didn't seem to 
be making any effort to get out ; getting his 
wind, perhaps. There were only a few 
small pieces of the shell in the nest, so I 
think the old bird threw them over as soon 
as the chick hatched. Of the other two 
eggs, one was still whole and the other was 
cracked a little where the bird was pushing 
out from the inside. 

The chick that had hatched was quite 
pretty, being covered thickly with light grey 
down, which was nearly three-fourth inches 
long on the head. The belly was entirely 
bare. The little fellow peeped quite lustily 



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as soon as he heard me coming up, or per- 
haps he was cold. His eyes were open and 
of a greyish color. There is a stuffed Hawk 
about three days* old at the Peabody mu- 
seum in New Haven. It looks just as this 
one did. 

On the 13th, when I went next, all the 
eggs had hatched and the shells were all 
taken away. There was a surprising differ- 
ence in the size of the chicks, the first out 
being three times the size of his youngest 
brother. The smallest looked as if he was 
just out of the egg. 

May 20th he had disappeared. The poor 
little chap was probably starved out See 
Darwin on the "survival of the fittest." 
There is not as much difference between 
the other three as before. They have grown 
fat on the food that the little one would 
have had. 

I gave them two young English Sparrows, 
hoping that they would acquire a taste for 
those dirty little immigrants, but they were 
not hungry. There was a half-eaten frog in 
the nest, also some fresh maple leaves. I 
don't see why the bird brought them there. 
They could not have come themselves, as 
they were attached to a twig about six inches 
long, and besides there are no maple trees 
in the immediate vicinity, only black oaks. 
Perhaps the chicks used them as fans to 
keep the flies off ! 

The oldest chick found his voice to-day. 
He balanced himself on his tail — his legs 
are still much too weak to hold him — and 
squawked at me quite bravely. Rather 
feebly to be sure, but my brother in the 
boat thought it was the old one at a dis- 
tance. 

On the 27 th the primaries had begun to 
show. The largest Hawk got up on his legs, 
but would have tipped over backward out of 
the nest if I hadn't put my hand there. 
The others simply sat up straight and opened 
their mouths — too surprised to speak. There 
was a green willow stick in the nest over 
three feet long, with the leaves all on it. 



Can any one tell me what they do with 
these green things? 

June 5 th the wing feathers were four 
inches long, and the tail an inch and a half. 
There were many large feathers on the 
back, less on the breast and only a few on 
the head. The shoulders have a decidedly 
reddish tinge. 

We have a regular programme now, which 
the birds follow whenever I go up. As 
soon as I come in right above the edge of 
the nest, which is practically a sphere of 
sticks about two feet in diameter, merely 
flattened on top and softened with leaves, 
up jumps the largest with wide open mouth, 
and begins to back off. When I think he 
will surely fall over the edge of the nest, he 
stops and stands there swaying about in a 
very reckless manner. He reminds me of 
a chicken which has had too much bread 
and whiskey. He seems to impress it upon 
his brothers " that something's up " — which 
is me. They sit up and open their mouths 
and stick their legs straight out in front and 
stare with an expression that is a combina- 
tion of surprise and fear which would make 
a fortune for any taxidermist who could re- 
produce it. Here's an idea for some of 
our rising young naturalists: a nest full of 
young Hawks staring in surprise at a stuffed 
monkey appearing above the edge. 

When I climb down they tune up and 
keep on squawking until I get nearly to the 
bottom. If I touch them or make any sud- 
den movements they begin sooner. 

June 1 2th the plumage had increased a 
good deal, but they still have a thick coat of 
fuzz underneath. The legs are covered down 
to the knee joint. The under parts are 
white, spotted with brown, and the back a 
darker color. 

They were all standing up when I got in 
sight of the nest, and as I went up very 
quietly they didn't seem much frightened. 
I made one perch on my hand by pushing 
against his toes. He didn't seem to mind 
it much, nor did he yell at all until I started 



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down. There was some green grass and 
lots of maple leaves in the nest. 

They had flown when I next visited the 
place on June 17th, and I think from the 
looks of things that they left some time be- 
fore the 15 th. On climbing the tree I 
found one of them lying on his back dead. 
Had all of them been killed instead of fly- 
ing off safely? The dead one smelled pretty 
rank, but I don't think he had been dead 
more than three or four days. Many of his 
bones seemed to have been broken, but per- 
haps, being young and tender, they had 
softened. 

Possibly he had had a scrap with his 
brothers, but I think if they had been so 
rude as to kill him, they would have finished 
the business by eating him up ! None of 
his parts were missing, though. Then, too, 
if it had been much of a fight he would have 
fallen over the edge. He might have starved 
to death, but I don't believe he would have 
gone off so cjuickly, as he seemed as well as 
the others on the 12 th. On the whole, I 
don't see what killed him. 

From watching this nest or Hen Hawks, 
I found that it takes over two weeks, and 
probably three, for Red- shouldered Hawks' 
eggs to hatch, and about forty days or some- 
thing less than six weeks before the young 
leave the nest; that they eat frogs and 
snakes, which was well known before, and 
that the parent does not break the egg to 
let out the young one — about which, I be- 
lieve, there has been some discussion. I 
never saw any feathers in the nest or any in- 
dications that they had been eating birds. 
Further: the primaries come out first, in 
their third week, and the tail feathers a lit- 
tle later, while the body feathers do not open 
out until about the fifth. They are not able 
to stand up at first — this family did in their 
fourth week — but they can prop themselves 
upon their tails and howl after the first week. 

How much of this would I have found 
out if I had taken the eggs? I think that 
lour or five sets at most, to show the varia- 



tion in color, is enough for anybody's collec- 
tion. If it is necessary to know the average 
number of eggs laid by a bird, why can't it 
be found just as easily by leaving the eggs 
and taking notes instead? I think such 
lists as the Jackson collection, in the Feb- 
ruary number, are interesting and useful, 
but I would be more interested and more 
instructed by some good notes on the breed- 
ing habits or nests, rather than the mere eggs. 
The egg is simply a product of nature which 
the bird has nothing to do with, but the 
shape and location of the nest depend 
wholly on her ingenuity. Therefore I think 
a collection of, or notes upon, nests is more 
interesting than anything which has to do 
wholly with eggs. 

But what I want to know is, what killed 
that young Hawk, and why did the old one 
bring so many green leaves to the nest? 

Henry R, Buck, 



Notes from Greenland. 



During a short sojourn in Copenhagen in 
January of this year, I visited the Zoological 
Museum of the town, as during my previous 
stay in Greenland I had become interested 
in the ornithology of that icy land. I ex- 
amined especially the Greenland bird skins, 
under the guidance of the inspector of the 
museum, Mr. H. Winge. As Greenland be- 
longs to the North American territory, I 
think your readers will be interested to learn 
of the most remarkable observations that I 
made. 

A recent acquisition of the museum was a 
collection of bird skins taken on the shores 
of Eastern Greenland, north of 65 deg. N. 
lat., by the Danish expedition, which had just 
returned after having explored that hitherto 
unknown part. The most remarkable were 2 
skins of Anser segeium. Bean Goose, both 
taken in June, 189 1 . (As I remember, June 
5 and June 17). This makes it very proba- 
ble that it breeds in those tracts. To my 
knowledge these are the first specimens 



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taken in Greenland or America. It is a 
very common bird in Iceland, and it is a 
wonder that it has not been taken before in 
Greenland. I also saw a downy young Bar- 
nacle Goose, only a few days old. Three 
young ones had been taken. The exact 
place of capture of this and the Bean Goose 
I do not remember. I can only say that it 
was on the shore of Eastern Greenland, be- 
tween 65 and 70 deg. N. lat. 

The naturalist of the expedition, Mr. Bay, 
intended to publish the results of the voyage 
in " Meddelelser fra Groenland," but at what 
time it will be published I do not know. 
Mr. Winge showed me a skin from Green- 
land of the European Hirundo Bust tea, 
which I did not embody in my little book, 
" Birds of Greenland." 

This is, so far as I know, the first sure 
American taken specimen of this specie. 

I also saw five Someteria skins from 
Godlhaab, in South Greenland, taken by Mr. 
Krabbe. I myself do not know Someteria 
V nigra and Mr. Winge considers this form 
a variety only of ^S*. Mollissima ; but he said 
that these skins (or at least those of the five 
which had the most distinct V shaped mark) 
were perfectly alike and inseparable from 
the Pacific Eider. The marks on Nos. i 
and 2 were very distinct as in S, Spectabilis, 
On No. 5, the mark was not continuous, but 
only consisted of a few black feathers, which 
nevertheless distinctly enough defined the 
V. Nos. 3 and 4 were transitions between 
Nos. 2 and 5. This might strengthen Mr. 
Winge*s opinion, but that you Americans will 
of course accept it that they should be 
hybrids between 6". Mollissima and S. 
Spectabilis is quite out of the question. 
Sooner might No. 5 (and perhaps Nos. 3 
and 4) be a hybrid between S. Mollissima 
and S, V nigra, 

I may add that Mr. Winge is our chief 
authority in ornithology. 

A, T, Ilagerup, 

Kolding, Denmark, April 10, 1893. 

[Eecclved April 27, 1893 — Editor.] 



Music on the Wing. 



Shelley, in his "Ode to a Skylark," gave 
to that bird, for his aerial song, a celebrity, 
which has never been awarded to some of 
our less classic birds. 

It is true that the English Skylark excels 
all American song birds, in the altitude he 
attains and in the strength and continuation 
of his song ; yet which of our readers can 
tell those of his native birds that sometimes, 
"like an embodied joy whose race is just 
began," leave earth and, soaring upward, 
send forth melody, which in point of sweet- 
ness may well vie with that of any bird. 

In writing this article, I desire to call the 
attention of the readers of the " O. & O." 
to a beautiful observation which, as far as I 
know, has received littie notice — the sing- 
ing in the air of some of our common birds. 
Whether this act comes under the head of 
instinct, or an inward exultation of which 
we have no knowledge, I am unable to say ; 
though it appears to me that the term " in- 
stinct" is too general, and when I see a Blue 
Grosbeak spring up from the earth and, fly- 
ing aloft in the clear blue sky, pour out a 
song which is usually sung from the top of 
some low shrub, then, to me, it seems un- 
reasonable that the word instinct should be 
applicable to this interesting performance. 

Every bird seems to seek a more or less 
elevated situation while singing, though it is 
curious that some will sing while flying, and 
that others, even though of the same family, 
never vocalize on the wing. Bearing that 
in mind, we know not what bird, in a mo- 
ment of happy feeling, may become trans- 
formed into a veritable Skylark, and give us 
a sweet surprise as the following, the first 
of these phenomena I had seen. While out 
in a field, I heard, far above my head, the 
familiar notes of our little Indigo Bunting. 
Lx)oking up I discovered him, a mere speck, 
sailing and singing away at that height as 
though in raptures. 

I had never seen this before, and was 



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much struck with it, for it certainly was 
pleasing and a subject worthy of study, alone 
in the questions — what birds sing on the 
wing? and what prompts it? besides the 
many other speculations which it will pre- 
sent to a lover of nature. Since I have 
several times seen this aerial flight of P, 
cyanea, accompanied with song. The 
Indigo Bunting always selects the top of 
some tree near his nest as his special singing 
site ; and there his charming notes may be 
heard at almost any time of day. Strange, 
though seldom, is that inspiration which 
carries this modest little creature to sing 
high up in the air, as though the earth were 
no longer worthy of its presence. 

Having observed this in the Indigo Finch, 
I was led to look for similar characteristics 
in other birds. I found that the Blue Gros- 
beak, Mocking-bird, and some of the Vireos 
all give us " music in the air." The Mock- 
ing-bird has a queer way while singing of 
flying straight up for about twenty feet in 
the air, then dropping down on the same 
branch in a flood of song. 

With the exception of the Mocking-bird, 
none of our true Thrushes sing while flying, 
though all of them give cries of distress and 
anger in the air. 

Who has not scanned the space overhead 
and strained their eyes to discern the ori- 
gin of those simple quavering notes chicker- 
chick-chee, chicker-chick-cheey and whose 
sense of grace and beauty is not gratified at 
the sight of the American Goldfinch, or 
Yellowbird, as he sees him ploughing through 
the air, now up, now down, like some fairy 
bark riding the waves, each rise and fall in 
perfect time to his cadences? These notes 
of the Goldfinch are not the same as that 
" luxurious nuptial song " which he warbles 
so joyously in the spring ; and, till the other 
day, i had never seen this pretty bird flying 
and singing in a manner so happy that it 
threw me into ecstaties. 

I was in an old orchard — that interesting 
wreck so often the scene of ornithological 



marvels — at about eleven o'clock. The day 
clear and bright had inspired the birds all 
around to song ; when suddenly from some- 
where, I knew not where, a Goldfinch came, 
and with such exquisite grace of flight he 
soared round and round, that I remained 
gazing up at him in amazement, rooted to 
to the ground until he disappeared in a tree, 
ceased singing, and thus broke the spell. 

Of course all the readers of the "O. & O." 
have seen that amusing feat of the Yellow- 
breasted Chat, as he flutters in the air with 
out-stretched legs and jerks out a jumble of 
curious noises, both with wings and throat ; 
all have been pleased with the gentle warble 
of the Bluebird, flying to his mate ; and have 
heard the love call of the Cuckoo as he 
wings his silent way. These alone are full of 
interest when we consider how few birds 
sing at all in the air ; but to those lovers of 
nature who have never seen some of our 
common birds mount on their wings, un- 
accustomed to sustain a high flight, as though 
caused by some sudden inward exuberance 
of feeling, and sing in a way which will cer- 
tainly give pleasure to all that witness it, to 
those who desire to reap " the harvest of a 
quiet eye," is this written with the hope that 
they may find in this study half the enjoy- 
ment that I have found. Henry Aylett. 

Ayletts, Va. 

^•^ 

Something About Owls. 



It is commonly believed that the Owl is 
one of the most destructive birds frequenting 
the woods of North America. That it is vo- 
racious, is well known ; and it is generally 
believed to be injurious to both the farmer 
and the sportsman ; to the former because it 
destroys his chickens, and to the latter be- 
cause it preys on various kinds of game. It 
is also believed to feed largely upon song 
birds. Actuated by these impressions, it has 
always been customary to destroy these birds 
whenever and wherever possible. Indeed, 
the war that has been waged against them 
has been so active and long- continued in 



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this locality that the birds, though formerly 
numerous, are now nearly extinct; and in 
every part of the United States they are be- 
ing rapidly exterminated. 

Not long ago the Agricultural Department 
at Washington, for the purpose of learning 
what proportion of the carnivorous birds were 
really injurious and what beneficial, sent a 
large number of circulars to various parts of 
the country, and even as far as Alaska, ask- 
ing people to send the stomachs of all carniv- 
orous birds to Washington for examination. 
A large number of persons responded, and 
two thousand seven hundred stomachs were 
received by the department. Of these eight 
hundred and fifty were the stomachs of va- 
rious kinds of Owls ; sixteen species being 
represented. 

These were all opened, and the contents 
carefully examined by expert naturalists, and 
the report of the examination has lately been 
issued, in a neat volume of two hundred 
pages. 

From this report we glean the following 
facts : — 

Of the Barn Owl, which is found more or 
less abundantly over the entire country, 
thirty-nine stomachs were received. Seven 
of them were empty, four contained insects, 
one a Pigeon, three other small birds, and 
the balance contained small Rodents, such as 
Mice, Rats, Gophers, etc. 

Of the Ix)ng-eared Owl, found from Mex- 
ico to Hudson Bay and from Nova Scotia to 
California, one hundred and seven stomachs 
were examined. Of these, but one contained 
a game-bird (a Quail). Fifteen contained 
other birds, one a bcjuirrel, and the remainder 
contained Mice. 

Of the Short- eared Owl, distributed over 
the entire country, one hundred and one 
stomachs were examined. Eleven contained 
small birds, one contained part of a Rabbit 
and seventy-seven contained Mice. 

Of the Barred Owl, inhabiting the entire 
country east of the Rocky Mountains, one 
hundred and nine stomachs were examined. 



Five contained poultry or game-birds, 
thirteen contained other birds, five contained 
Squirrels, four contained Rabbits, and the 
others contained Mice, Frogs, Lizards, etc. 

Of the Great Grey Owl, which is very rare 
south of the fortieth parallel, nine stomachs 
were examined. All of them contained small 
Rodents, and one in addition contained a 
Snow Bunting. 

Of the Saw- Whet Owl, also rare below the 
the fortieth parallel, twenty- two stomachs 
were examined. Seventeen contained Mice, 
one a Sparrow, one insects, and three were 
empty. 

Of the Screech Owl, common throughout 
the entire temperate zone, and the best 
known of all the Owls, two hundred and fif- 
ty-five stomachs were examined. One con- 
tained a Pigeon, thirty-eight contained other 
birds, ninety-one contained Mice, and one 
hundred contained insects. 

Of the Great Horned Owl, found from 
Central America tt) the Arctic circle, and 
which seems to be the black sheep among 
Owls, one hundred and twenty-seven stomachs 
were examined. Of these, thirty-one con- 
tained poultry or game-birds, eight contained 
other birds, twenty-nine contained Rabbits, 
five contained S^quirrels, and but thirteen 
contained Mice. 

Of the Snowy Owl, which is rare south of 
the fortieth parallel and west of the Rocky 
Mountains, thirty-eight stomachs were ex- 
amined. Two contained game birds, nine 
contained other birds, two contained Rab- 
bits, and twelve contained Mice. 

Of the Hawk Owl, which, by the way, is 
seldom found as far south as the United 
States, but one stomach was received. That 
came from Quebec, and contained a Mouse. 

Of the Burrowing Owl, which belongs ex- 
clusively to America and is found from Pata- 
gonia to Manitoba, thirty- two stomachs were 
examined. Three contained small mammals 
and the remainder contained insects. 

Of Pygmy Owl, rare east of the Rocky 
Mountains, but six stomachs were examined. 



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None were were found to contain either 
poultry or game. 

Of the Elf Owl, the smallest known spe- 
cies, three stomachs were received. All of 
these contained insects. 

These figures, while they may not be able 
to do away with ignorant prejudice, show 
that the Owls, with the possible exception of 
the Great Horned Owl, instead of being 
ruthlessly slaughtered, should be protected. 
C. O, Ormsbee, 

Montpelier, Vt. 

The White-faced Glossy Ibis. 



This beautiful and interesting species is 
but a rare summer visitant on the southern 
coast of British Columbia. Mr. Fannin, in 
his check list of the birds of this Province, 
records the the taking of but two specimens 
within its boundaries ; one at Salt Spring Is- 
land off the coast, and another at the mouth 
of the PVazer river. Its native haunts and 
home are chiefly in the southern regions of 
Texas, and westward into Arizona and also 
southward through Mexico to tropical Amer- 
ica. Jn some parts of Texas it has been 
found congregating in great numbers north- 
wards. On the east of the Rocky Mountains, 
it has been found in southwestern Kan- 
sas, but its occurrence there, or in the inter- 
mediate regions, north of New Mexico, is 
rare. In southern California it is only occa- 
sionally seen. At Santa Barbara, Mr. Streater 
records it as " Migrant, not very common. 
J have only noticed the bird in spring." Mr. 
Bryant, in his " Birds of Farallon Islands," 
says, " One bird was shot in the spring of 
1884, from a flock of half a dozen." In 
size and general plumage, this species differs 
but little from the Glossy Ibis ; the chief dis- 
tinctive features is its white face. In length 
this species is about twenty- four inches, and 
each wing from ten to twelve ; the tail is four 
inches, and the bill four and a half, the tarsus 
being three inches, and the middle toe and 
claw also three inches. The claws are slen- 
der and nearly straight, the head is bare only 



about the eyes and between the forks of the 
jaws, the bill is of dark hue. The color of 
the general plumage is of a rich chestnut hue, 
changing to glossy dark green, with purple 
reflections on the back of the head, wings 
and other parts. The plumage of the young 
is greyish-brown, with white streaks on the 
head. This bird nests in communities, not 
only with its own species, but also in the so- 
ciety of Egrets, Herons and other waders that 
nest in similar positions. The places select- 
ed for nesting purposes are extensive, reedy 
and tule marshes and on the tops of bro ken 
down, and among growing reeds and water- 
grasses the nest is placed. It is rather well 
and compactly built, and quite distinguish- 
able from the more clumsy platform- like 
structures of the Herons. It is composed 
of dry stocks of reeds, tules, and other veg- 
etable materials that it finds in the vicinity. 
The standing reeds being interwoven into 
the nest, helps to keep it out of the water. 
The set of eggs is generally three in number, 
and average about 1.50 x 1.30 of an inch. 
The time for nesting is April and May. 

From MS. " Avi-fauna of British Colum- 
bia." William Z. Kells. 

Listowel, Ont. 



Here are some of my best clutches for the 
year: May 15, Meadow Lark, 6. May 24, 
Brown Thrasher, 3 ; Olive-backed Thrush, 4, 
4 ; Wilson's Thrush, 4 ; Yellow Warbler, 5 . 
May 25, American Woodcock, 4. May 27, 
Wilson's Thrush, 3 . May 3 1 , Wood Thrush, 

4. June. 5, Scarlet Tanager, 4. June 8, 
Wilson's Thrush, 4. June 10, Black Tern, 
8 ; Horned Grebe, 8 ; Least Bittern, 2 ; 
Florida Gallinule, 36 eggs; Marsh Wren, 
68. June 12, Black Tern, 76 eggs; Coot, 
35; Gallinule, 53; Pied Bill Grebe, 20; 
Horned Grebe, 20 ; Marsh Wren, 4. June 
30, Wood Phoebe, i ^g% and 2 young. July 

5, Yellow Warbler, 3. July, 31, Goldfinch, 
4. June 5, Red- shouldered Hawk, 3 young ; 
Crow, 5 young. 6". H, B. 

St. Clair, Mich. 



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The Marsh Hawk. 

The Marsh Hawk or Harrier ( Circus hud- 
sonius) is one of our commonest Hawks. 
It generally arrives in this locality about the 
middle of March, and from that time till the 
last of November can be seen sailing over 
the prairies and fields in search of its prey. 
Unlike most Hawks, it can be readily recog- 
nized at a distance by means of the white 
tail coverts. I shot my first specimen of 
this species on April 9, 1892. It was hov- 
ering around over a spot on the prairie, and 
finally lit on the ground, and I shot it. On 
going to retrieve the game I found it had in 
its talons a large field mouse, variety {Arvi- 
cola riparius) ; the mouse was still alive, 
but badly lacerated. The bird was a fine 
male, of a bluish-gray color above and white 
below, sparsely streaked with light reddish- 
brown. It measured L. 19; W. 14; T. 9. 
The iris was a pale straw color. The male 
of this species is about as beautiful a Hawk 
as can be found. On June 4, 1892, while 
wading through a small slough, I saw a Hawk 
fly from a clump of grass and fly off over a 
hill. I went over to the nest, which was in 
the middle of the clump of grass and float- 
ing in water about two feet deep. It was 
about sixteen inches across, rose about three 
inches above the water and was nice and dry 
inside, neatly hollowed, and composed of 
small sticks, rushes, reeds, small rose bush, 
slough grass, and lined with fine dry grass. 
I left the nest to see what the Hawk would 
do. She circled around quite a ways off, 
seemingly unconcerned, and then came back 
to the nest. I then returned, and gathered 
in the five eggs, which were a dirty white 
color, unmarked, with incubation advanced. 

My next find of this species was May 13, 
1893. While I was hunting, a Hawk flew 
up from the ground in front of me. On in- 
vestigation I found a nest containing three 
beautiful fresh eggs. They were so different 
from the Marsh Hawk's eggs I had found 
before, that at first I thought they were of 



another species. The nest was on the ground, 
about half way up on the north side of a high, 
steep hill, composed of large weed stalks, 
mostly placed on the lower side of the nest 
to make up for the slant of the hill. It was 
lined with fine dry grass. The 9 bird was 
soon joined by the <J, and flew screaming 
around very high up in the air. I came 
back to the nest about two hours afterward 
to try and secure the ? bird. She left the 
nest as before, and as she made a low swoop 
my companion shot her. Took the eggs, 
which were of a pale bluish color, two of 
them rather thickly blotched over the whole 
surface with a very light brown with a lilac 
tinge, looking like miniature eggs of the 
Red-tailed Hawk ; while the third egg was 
thickly spotted wfth many small and a few 
large spots, all of a clear brown color. The 
? Hawk measured 2 1 inches in length, W. 
15J4 ; T. i^. She was considerably larger 
and more courageous, though not as beauti- 
ful as the male bird. The back was brown, 
without any bluish tinge, and with the 
streaks underneath larger and darker. The 
iris of this bird was brown. 

This occasion was the only time I ever 
heard a bird of this species utter a sound. 

Rudolph M, Anderson. 

Forest City, Iowa. 



A Day's Shooting. 

One day in October a friend named George 
G. Dyer and myself started out to get some 
sea birds to mount We went down to the 
dock and, hoisting the sail of my small boat, 
we started off. We first went to the upper 
part of the lake to see if there were any Ducks 
feeding. While sailing along I saw a bunch 
of Coots or White-wing Scoters come in from 
sea and light. Pointing the boat's head in 
their direction, I told my friend to put some 
heavy shot in his gun and I did the same. 
I sailed the boat within 50 yards of them be- 
fore they rose. I heard the report of my 
friend's gun, but did not see what he killed. 
As an old cock came my side of the boat my 



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first barrel was a clean miss, but I had the 
satisfaction to see him double up at my sec- 
ond. George had missed his Duck with the 
first barrel, but wing-broke another with his 
second. We did not stop to chase the 
wounded Duck but picked up the one I 
killed and started down the lake. On the way 
an old Cormorant came over us; we both 
fired at the same time and down it came 
completely riddled. As we sailed near a 
small island my friend said, " What kind of 
a bird is that sitting on the water near the 
shore?" I soon saw that it was a Red- 
throated Ix>on. It was badly wounded, and 
George easily killed it. I saw a number o^ 
Gulls feeding on some kind of a dead ani- 
mal the other side of the island ; so beaching 
the boat we started after them. We sepa- 
rated and crawled toward the birds. When 
I was within 40 yards I raised my gun to fire, 
but at that moment two puffs of smoke arose 
from the grass not 50 yards from me and I 
saw a number of birds fall ; but as the others 
rose I shot one for each barrel. When we 
counted the Gulls, we found that there were 
I Herring Gull, 4 Kittiwakes and 2 Com- 
mon Terns. 

As we had all the birds we could use, we 
started back to the boat and kept on our 
way down the lake. After sailing about a 
mile we saw a flock of Ducks off to the right 
of us. I turned the boat's head toward them, 
but they arose and came within about seventy 
yards of us. George had a charge of BB 
shot in his gun, so he blazed away and had 
the pleasure of seeing one of them fall. Pick- 
ing it up we found it was a Velvet Scoter. 
As it was then about 3 o'clock, I turned the 
boat about and we started for home. On 
the way I shot an 'Osprey that came sailing 
over. It was dark when we reached home 
with our birds. Just before- we arrived at 
the house an Owl flew past. We could not 
get a shot at it. Reaching home I began 
work on the birds we had killed. 

Claude G. Dunn, 
Ocean View, R.I. 



A Day's Ramble. 



Sunday, May 24, 1893, was a beautiful 
day, warm and pleasant, just the one for a 
ramble in the woods. Starting at 10 o'clock, 
I went north to the city limits, taking a car 
there and riding to Gross Park, a little vil- 
lage about two miles out. I arrived there 
at 1 1 o'clock and went to the Chicago river, 
which flows through that district. What a 
river I On one side a vast prairie and on 
the other thick woods — a muddy, sluggish 
stream with no current. Following the river 
to the north, the woods are thick and dark, 
while now and then I passed a clearing and 
saw tree trunks that had been blasted by 
lightning, where they had fallen years ago. 
" What an untold joy it is to find oneself on 
a fine day in the woods with nature." The 
ground was covered with all kinds of wild 
flowers, while wild grape vines covered many 
of the old oak trees. Ivy and other vines 
were there. Wild rose bushes were plenti- 
ful and wild violets were all over, while large 
dandelions looked like sheets of gold. The 
cherry and apple trees were abundant. Moss 
of all shades, from light to dark green, cover 
rocks and trees. Sitting down on a large 
rock in the shade, within a stone's throw of 
the river, I watched the birds fly by and lis- 
tened to their songs. The hammering of the 
Woodpecker near by in a tall tree, seeking 
a soft spot in the wood to make a home, was 
interesting. The harsh cry of the Jay was 
heard now and then, while a Crow was seen 
flying to the north. Silence for awhile, then 
broken by the song of the Thrush and Robin, 
while Blue Birds, Vireos and Catbirds flitted 
from tree to tree. Large Toads hopped 
about; while Frogs were plentiful. They 
were quiet. Now a Grass Snake glided by 
me, perhaps in search of food, so I let him 
go peacefully. I started for home, as it was 
getting late and arrived in time for supper, 
wishing that I could spend days like this in 
woods. Philip D, 

Chicago, 111. 



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ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. 18-N0. 10 



THE 

ORNITHOLOGISTsiS>OOLOGIST 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OP 

NATURAL HISTORY, 

ESPECIALLY DEVOTED TO THE STUDY OF 

BIRDS, 

THEIR NESTS AND EGGS, 

AND TO THB 

INTERESTS OF NATURALISTS. 

Under the Editorial Management of 
FRANK B. WEBSTER, . . . Hyde Park, Mass. 
J. PARKER NORRIS, . . . PhUadelphia, Pa. 

PUBUSHBD AT THE 

MU8CUM AND NATURAU8T8* 8UPPLY DEPOT 

OF THB 

FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER COMPANY, 

INCORPORATED, 

HYDE PARK, MASS. 



The O. & O. is mailed each issue to every paid subscriber. 
If you fail to receive it, notify us. 



The next thing in order will be the Nov. 
and Dec. " O. & O." 



GORDON PLUMMER. 

Gordon Plummer died of pneumonia at 
his home in Brookline, Mass., on November 
ZS. He was well known by the sportsmen 
and the older naturalists in this State. 

Mr. Plummer was early in the field, send- 
ing a collector to California in 1882. At 
the time of his death he possessed a collec- 
tion of skins that are remarkable for their 
perfection of plumage and make up. He 
also possessed a collection of mounted birds, 
the work of nearly all the leading taxider- 
mists of Massachusetts and New York city. 
It was his rule, whenever he saw a specimen 
that was superior to his, to procure it and 
discard the inferior one. The result was 
that his collection is the finest private one 
that we ever saw, not large in numbers, but 
gilt edge. During the past year he devoted 
his leisure time to making a collection of 
eggs and was displaying the same care in se- 
lection. A labrador Duck from his collection 
was purchased in 1892 by Rothchilds. In the 
November, 1892 "O. & O." "Muskeget Is- 
land" fully represented his feelings as a 



sportsman. Mr. Plummer was engaged in 
the leather business in Boston. For eight 
years he has been a constant caller at our 
office. During his last call he said, " One 
of the greatest pleasures I have is the time 
I devote to my collections." 

Being of a kind, bright and genial dispo- 
sition, he had many friends who will mourn 

his departure. 

^•^ 

Brief Notes, Correspondence and 
Clippings. 



We are in want of the following skins for 
a special purpose. If any of our readers 
have them among their duplicates for ex- 
change we would be pleased to hear from 
them: A.O.U. Nos. 3i5> 293> 353> 37', 372, 
373e, 373<i> 374, 37Sa, 379, 379a, 381, 382, 
392,417, 650, 658. 



Archie Van Leer writes that he thinks the 
Play House of the Satin Bower Bird in the 
Smithsonian display at Chicago was one of 
the best things that he saw. He also says 
that Kansas made the best display of tax- 
idermy. 



Winter birds have been scarce thus far. 



We have just had a Coati Mondi placed 
in our hands for sale. It is tame and is 
quite a pet. 



Any of our readers who have Albinos that 
they wish to dispose of will please send par- 
ticulars at once. 



Wanted, a set each of the eggs of Corn 
Crake and Ruff. 



A subscriber asks if we can furnish a pet 
Coon ? Who has one ? Another one wants 
a stuffed Whale, to use out west to exhibit 
next summer. 



Wanted, A i skins, Hoelboels Grebe, Short- 
billed Gull, Am. Golden Plover; all males 
in full plumage. Also two females Black- 
throated Blue Warbler. 



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October, 1893.] 



AND OOLOGIST. 



143 



Any one wishing to hire a first-class tax- 
idermist will do well to communicate with us. 



You can help us very much by renewing 
your subscriptions for 1894. 



The " Nidiologist," in its last issue, pub- 
lishes a Connecticut dealer as attempting to 
palm off hand colored eggs on the unsus- 
pecting. If such is the fact it is well to have 
it ventilated. 



We have received a number of interesting 
articles from our readers since our July issue. 
Continue to send them in; the more we 
have on hand the better variety we are able 
to give in each issue. 



The article "Notes from Greenland" by 
Mr. A. T. Hagerup is of unusual interest. 
We know that our readers will unite with us 
in extending an invitation to send us other 
communications. 



Harry R. Wilder, of Riverside, Cal., called 
on us recently. He is one of our eastern 
collectors who has gone west to locate. He 
is interested in the honey business, but keeps 
his eye on the birds at the same time. 



A CORRECTION. 

In Vol. 14, page 57, 1889, of this Maga- 
zine I reported the capture of a Little Horned 
Owl from Yellow Medicine County, this 
State, which was really only Asio accipi- 
trinus. I the same report I mentioned a 
Great Gray Owl, which is only a 9 Nyctea 
nyctea. Albert Lano, 



NOTF^ FROM BOONE, IOWA. 

August 27 I collected a set of fourteen 
Quail eggs, bird on nest. One week later 
a boy found a nest with thirteen eggs. These 
are the latest records of the nesting of the 
Bob White that I have for Boone County. 

September 17 a fine Albino Red-winged 
Blackbird was brought to me by Frank 
Brown, who shot it that day at Clear I^ke, 



north of the city. It is a perfect Albino, 
pure white with the exception of the lesser 
wing coverts, which are a delicate pink ; eyes 
pink. This handsome fellow was with a 
flock of about two hundred Blackbirds, all 
of normal color. It measured : Length, 
8.10; extent, 12.00; wing 4.00; tail, 3.01 ; 
bill, 0.60. 

The Smithsonian display at Chicago was 
alone worth the expense of the trip. 

Ca rl PritZ' I fen n Ing, 

A QUICK FLIGHT. 

The Pigeon flying season of 1892 in Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., was opened with the journey of 
three birds — Forty Minutes, Victor and 
Bowdoin, belonging to Daniel Connelly, Bos- 
ton, from New York city, and the lead for the 
Columbian prises has been taken by the best 
speed as yet to the credit of the Boston birds, 
and by a greater distan(^e than has been made 
at so early a date since 1884. 

The start was from the tower of Madison 
Square Garden by Mr. J. V. Gottschalk at 
9.15 o'clock. The report rendered by wire 
gave the cipher of the countermark placed 
on the bird in New York before the start and 
12.15 P.M. as the time of arrival. 

The air line distance covered is about 
174.6 miles. This, at the figures reported, 
would give an average speed of 1707 yards 
per minute, and the mile in 61.8 seconds. 

The countermark having been reported the 
day of the start gives the proof of the dis- 
tance being covered in the day, and the bird 
therefore has the lead for both the Colum- 
bian prize and for the Clipper trophy for the 
best form over 1000 miles ; the Outing prize, 
for the greatest number of miles as yet cov- 
ered ; the George W. Childs and the S. M. 
P. A. trophies, for the greatest distance in 
the day, and with the possibility of making 
a claim for the special prize offered for the 
best break in the record for speed from the 
metropolis to New England. 

Editor " O & O " : I will open the year of 



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ORNITHOLOGIST 



[Vol. 18-N0. 10 



1893 Wednesday by starting on a snow-shoe 
trip of 100 miles after Owls' eggs, followed 
by one, as soon as migration begins, to the 
famous Devil Lake County. 

Last year I collected 640 eggs, 71 varie- 
ties ; this year will swell the list a little, con- 
sequently the snow-shoe trip. 

Hope to add a Bald Eagle to my Rap- 
tores as I have heard of one out 70 miles 
in a little patch of timber on the prairies. 
Prairies ! A multitude of thoughts that one 
word contains ; dreary in winter, inviting in 
spring, beautiful in summer and glorious in 
autumn. What medicine for the sick and 
hard- worked clerk or business man of the 
cities would be a few weeks of life here. 

A good team of horses and dogs, guns and 
a place to sleep, then let business take care 
of itself. 

Few can realize how much benefit such a 
trip is unless it has been their lot to receive 
such benefit. 

To be bom in New York State and raised in 
North Dakota is not the luck of many men. 
For 14 years this has been my home. Saw 
the Elk in plenty when too small to hunt. 
Deer and Antelope. It is a fine place for 
the hunter or naturalist. 

Will give another note in the spring, after 
the season is passed, telling how successful 
it was. Alf, Eastgate, 

Grand Forks, N.D. 



" What is authentically known of the ra- 
pidity of flight by different species of birds, 
and which is considered the swiftest?" 

To Mr. Smith's question, I believe it may 
be answered that the Falcons are the swift- 
est, and as far as my experience goes it 
seems to me that the Duck Hawk is swifter 
than any other species. 

It easily overtakes any bird within the 
range of its vision, and does so with incred- 
ible velocity. 

A Bobwhite, once fired at by me, was 
overtaken by a Duck Hawk in the distance 
of two hundred yards, though the Hawk ap- 



parently had to fly three times as far as its 
<iuarry before it reached the latter. 

On another occasion two Duck Hawks 
were seen pursuing a flock of tame Pigeons. 
These were far above their pursuers, and 
while in that position were safe. But the 
Falcons began to "ring," or ascend in cir- 
cles till the smaller bird, the male, got his ^ v 
" pitch " first, then, with astonishing swift^ \ V 
ness, he overtook the Pigeons, whose rapid- 
ity of flight is very great. When the Falcon 
began his swoop, at about an angle of twenty 
degrees with the flight of the Pigeons, these, 
though going very fast, seemed in compar- j 
ison with the progress of their pursuei^^^, 
scarcely to move, as he shot like aii arrow 
through the flock. Other instances of the 
swiftness of flight by Falcons might be given 
but these seem to show that no bird flies as 
fast as the Falcon. Wm, C. Avery. - 

Greensboro, Ala. 



NESTING OF HUDSONIAN CHICKADEE IN MAINE. 

On July 10, 1893, while I was walking in 
the spruce forests in Cutler, Washington 
County, Maine, a small bird suddenly flew 
from the lower branches of a small spruce 
tree near an opening in the woods. 

I thought she had just left her nest, and 
upon investigating found it in a natural cav- 
ity in the stub of a small hard-wood tree 
which had been destroyed by fire some years 
before. 

I waited some time for the bird to return 
to identify it. In the- course of fifteen min- 
utes she returned, and flew into the hole 
which contained the nest. 

When she came out, in about a minute, 
I shot her and found she was a Hudsonian 
Chickadee. 

The entrance to the cavity was about 16 
inches from the ground, and the cavity itself 
was about eight inches deep. 

The nest was compact and large, made of 
rabbit's hair and moss. It contained six 
young birds, a few days old. 

Gardner IV. HalL 



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Of cdUFK ynu did. ll, lio\vcver» you Utd «tn receive a sampk 
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To evrry one who an^wcrs^ ihi^ aod cncloiin 5 ccniB to 
hdp pAy pnatagt;, wi; *tU send free graii* a liirse» Itand- 
somc 

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ORE, suitable for any cabinet. Ta ll*c i*t, 3d, 10th and 
loeth answcrijis we wt^W siend an cjctra ftiw osbinei of 
Flaridn sbcila . A dd rcsa » 

THE COLLECTOR, 

(MBition paper.. 1 PEKIN. ILL. 

BIRDS' EGGS. 

SEND FOR OUR PRICE LISTS. 
FRANK BLAKE WEBSTER CO^ 

HYJ>€ PARK, MASS. 

CATALOGUE. 

GLASS. EYES, SUPPLIES, E<XiS, SKIKS, LAND AND 

MARINE CURIOS, ETC, 

10 CENTS. 

Any pcnwn s«ndiii^ ua I« centH will have itieir name 
«ntiffid ^ ttiir traiie list^ and wilJ receive during 1^94^ coi>y of 
all Cataio^ueis^ Circiil»r»+ &c,, ihat we is»tte. 
^ [Ttnoic who hfliVe done so in iBgu of have sent u& order* dur- 
ing that tiiTiep are already eiitered.] 

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INSECTS — Mflynird'jj Bi.ticrflia fN.A.) 

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ORNITHOLOGIST AND OOLOGEST— 

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Taxidermy and Zoological Collecting. 

A Complete Hand-book of 363 pages for the amateur Taxidermist, Collector, Osteolo- 
gist, Museum Builder, Sportsman and Traveller. 

Illustrated with Twenty-four Plates and Eighty-five Text Pictures 

By WILLIAM T. HORNADAY, 

Fttr Eigk£ Frrtr-c Ckkif Taxtdermht (*/ tkv U. S. Nttfiomti Mtt.utnH, 

It not onlv cover* all tht ground asj a text^book for tht? begtrjuer, bui any TaxidL^rrtdfil 
will be fepafd by a perusal of it^ pagei^. and once re«d* it will lie on the work bench, as a 
companion to the scissors and skinnintj knifeT for il Is as indltjpenj»able to one who desireti 
to be a wtmKMAX, Kh i^ the frame work of the specitnen itself. 



We also carry a full line of Tools and Supplies, which are mentioned 
in this Book, and many others besides. 

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